Sintering anisotropy of binder jetted 316L stainless steel: part II–microstructure evolution during sintering
Journal article, 2022

Green density of binder jetted parts are typically equal or lower than the powder tap density. Also, anisotropic green porosity distribution is expected because of the characteristics of the binder jetting (BJ) printing process. In this study, the microstructure evolution in terms of phases and porosity characteristics was studied. A transition from irregular-shape interconnected porosity in pre-sintered samples to closed quasi-spherical porosity for samples sintered at 1370°C was observed. EBSD phase map showed ∼2.73% of δ-ferrite in sample sintered at 1370°C. The anisotropic porosity distribution was revealed by a higher area fraction of aligned large pores (>35 µm), within the cross-section perpendicular to the building direction. Chemical analysis showed an increase of C, O and N on the green sample, while a strong decrease was found after sintering when compared with the powder chemistry. δ-ferrite onset, from phase equilibrium calculations, varies from ∼1250°C (sintered sample chemistry) to ∼1350°C (powder chemistry).




stainless steel

binder jetting

additive manufacturing

chemical analysis


Alberto Cabo Rios

Chalmers, Industrial and Materials Science, Materials and manufacture

Eduard Hryha

Chalmers, Industrial and Materials Science, Materials and manufacture

Eugene Olevsky

San Diego State University

University of California at San Diego (UCSD)

P. Harlin

Sandvik Additive Manufacturing

Powder Metallurgy

0032-5899 (ISSN) 1743-2901 (eISSN)

Vol. 65 4 283-295

Subject Categories


Materials Chemistry

Metallurgy and Metallic Materials



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