Strategic monitoring for the European Water Framework Directive
Journal article, 2006

This article first reviews the principal monitoring requirements of the Water Framework Directive (WFD) of the European Union (EU) and assesses how contaminant monitoring may fit into a risk-assessment approach. In this context, we show the limited ability of conventional trace-contaminant-monitoring methods to fulfil all of the WFD requirements. We then clearly define and exemplify the roles and the functions of a new set of monitoring tools, using three case studies based on datasets that we obtained during a field trial in the River Meuse as part of the Screening methods for Water data InFormaTion (SWIFT-WFD) project in support of implementing the WFD.


Passive sampling

Screen-printed electrode

Water Framework Directive


Water quality

Environmental monitoring


Ian J. Allan

University of Portsmouth

Branislav Vrana

University of Portsmouth

Richard Greenwood

University of Portsmouth

Graham A. Mills

University of Portsmouth

Jesper Knutsson

Chalmers, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Water Environment Technology

Arne Holmberg

Alcontrol Sweden

Nathalie Guigues

Bur. Rech. Geologiques et Minieres

Anne-Marie Fouillac

Bur. Rech. Geologiques et Minieres

Serena Laschi

University of Florence

TrAC - Trends in Analytical Chemistry

0165-9936 (ISSN)

Vol. 25 7 704-715

Subject Categories

Environmental Sciences



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