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On Static Shells and the Buchdahl Inequality for the Spherically Symmetric Einstein-Vlasov System

Journal article, 2007

In a previous work [1] matter models such that the energy density ρ 0, and the radial- and tangential pressures p 0 and q, satisfy p + q Ωρ, Ω 1, were considered in the context of Buchdahl's inequality. It was proved that static shell solutions of the spherically symmetric Einstein equations obey a Buchdahl type inequality whenever the support of the shell, [R 0, R 1], R 0 > 0, satisfies R 1/R 0 < 1/4. Moreover, given a sequence of solutions such that R 1/R 0 → 1, then the limit supremum of 2M/R 1 was shown to be bounded by ((2Ω + 1)2 - 1)/(2Ω + 1)2. In this paper we show that the hypothesis that R 1/R 0 → 1, can be realized for Vlasov matter, by constructing a sequence of static shells of the spherically symmetric Einstein-Vlasov system with this property. We also prove that for this sequence not only the limit supremum of 2M/R 1 is bounded, but that the limit is ((2Ω + 1)2 - 1)/(2Ω + 1)2 = 8/9, since Ω = 1 for Vlasov matter. Thus, static shells of Vlasov matter can have 2M/R 1 arbitrary close to 8/9, which is interesting in view of [3], where numerical evidence is presented that 8/9 is an upper bound of 2M/R 1 of any static solution of the spherically symmetric Einstein-Vlasov system.