ACD³ as a framework for design of ergonomic workplaces. Ergonomics in a Global World
Journal article, 2019

BACKGROUND: Workplace Ergonomics and Human Factors (E/HF) remains as relevant and important as ever to respond to contemporary workplace design challenges. Therefore, E/HF expertise must be involved in early and appropriate phases of the workplace design process, in order to leverage user needs and requirements to constrain the proposed design solution. In this process, design decisions are made. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this article is to describe the use of a systems-theoretical framework as a guide in collaborative workplace design, focussing on planning and documenting which decisions and activities should involve E/HF expertise. METHODS: As this …is a conceptual paper, its method is to synthesise a framework from a combination of design process methodology-, general systems theory- and sociotechnical systems literature. RESULTS: The framework organises the design decisions to be made into hierarchical abstraction levels and cross-cuts them into five perspectives from which the design problem can be viewed holistically. CONCLUSIONS: The ACD3 framework is intended as an enabler of many types of design, including the design of work systems. It provides a framework that allows all stakeholders to converge around design decisions that ensure that the work system is optimised to human characteristics and the activity to be performed.

ergonomic activities

ergonomic design

systems theory

Activity centred design


Lars-Ola Bligård

Chalmers, Industrial and Materials Science, Design and Human Factors

Cecilia Berlin

Chalmers, Industrial and Materials Science, Design and Human Factors


1051-9815 (ISSN)

Vol. 62 1 5-12

Subject Categories

Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics


Human Computer Interaction

Areas of Advance






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