Energy-aware predictive control for electrified bus networks
Journal article, 2019

For an urban bus network to operate efficiently, conflicting objectives have to be considered: providing sufficient service quality while keeping energy consumption low. The paper focuses on energy efficient operation of bus lines, where bus stops are densely placed, and buses operate frequently
with possibility of bunching. The proposed decentralized, busĀ  fleet control solution aims to combine four conflicting goals incorporated into a multi-objective, nonlinear cost function. The multi-objective optimization is solved under a receding horizon model predictive framework.
The four conflicting objectives are as follows. One is ensuring periodicity of headways by watching leading and following vehicles i.e. eliminating bus bunching. Equal headways are only a necessary condition for keeping a static, predefifined, periodic timetable. The second objective is timetable tracking, and passenger waiting time minimization. In case of high passenger demand, it is desirable to haste the bus in order to prevent bunching. The final objective is energy efficiency. To this end, an energy consumption model is formulated considering battery electric vehicles with recuperation during braking. Alternative weighting strategies are compared and evaluated through realistic scenarios, in a calibrated microscopic traffic simulation environment. Simulation results confirm of 3-8% network level energy saving compared to bus holding control while maintaining punctuality and periodicity of buses.

Bus bunching

Multiobjective optimization

Receding control

Passenger wait

Energy consumption


Balázs Varga

Budapest University of Technology and Economics

Tamas Tettamanti

Budapest University of Technology and Economics

Balázs Adam Kulcsár

Chalmers, Electrical Engineering, Systems and control, Automatic Control

Applied Energy

0306-2619 (ISSN)

Vol. 252 113477

Public transit shared mobility - connected and safe solutions

Chalmers, 2019-03-01 -- 2020-02-29.

Chalmers, 2020-03-01 -- 2021-03-01.

OPerational Network Energy managemenT for electrified buses (OPNET)

Swedish Energy Agency, 2018-10-01 -- 2021-12-31.

Driving Forces

Sustainable development

Areas of Advance



Subject Categories

Energy Engineering

Transport Systems and Logistics

Control Engineering

Environmental Sciences



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