The evolution of intellectual property strategy in innovation ecosystems: Uncovering complementary and substitute appropriability regimes
Journal article, 2018

In this article, we attempt to extend and nuance the debate on intellectual property (IP) strategy, appropriation, and open innovation in dynamic and systemic innovation contexts. We present the case of four generations of mobile telecommunications systems (covering the period 1980-2015), and describe and analyze the co-evolution of strategic IP management and innovation ecosystems. Throughout this development, technologies and technological relationships were governed with different and shifting degrees of formality. Simultaneously, firms differentiated technology accessibility across actors and technologies to benefit from openness and appropriation of innovation. Our analysis shows that the discussion of competitiveness and appropriability needs to be expanded from the focal appropriability regime and complementary assets to the larger context of the innovation ecosystem and its cooperative and competitive actor relations, with dispersed complementary and substitute assets and technologies. Consequently, the shaping of complementary and substitute appropriability regimes is central when strategizing in dynamic and systemic innovation contexts. This holds important implications for the management of open innovation, innovation ecosystems, platforms, and coopetition.


Technology Licensing


Innovation Ecosystem

Open Innovation

Intellectual Property Right



Marcus Holgersson

Chalmers, Technology Management and Economics, Entrepreneurship and Strategy

Ove Granstrand

Chalmers, Mathematical Sciences

University of Gothenburg

Marcel Bogers

University of Copenhagen

Longe Range Planning

0024-6301 (ISSN)

Vol. 51 2 303-319

Areas of Advance

Information and Communication Technology

Subject Categories



Economics and Business

Business Administration

Law (excluding Law and Society)

Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering

Driving Forces

Innovation and entrepreneurship



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