Gamma Multiplicities in a Multiplying Sample for the Assay of Nuclear Materials
Artikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift, 2005

The multiplicities, or factorial moments, of the distribution of the number of neutrons emerging from a fissile sample can be used to identify and quantify fissile isotopes, in particular even-N isotopes of transuranic elements. In fact, the spontaneously emitted source neutrons can induce further fissions in the sample, thereby changing the number distributions of the neutrons leaving the sample, and therefore their multiplicities. The multiplicities increase monotonically with sample mass, hence the measurement of the multiplicities can be used to quantify the sample mass. Analytical expressions for multiplicities that include induced fission effects have been derived for neutrons in the past. These expressions are given as functions of the probability of induced fission per neutron, and have been investigated both by Monte Carlo methods and in experiments using thermal neutron detectors. The object of this paper is to derive analytical formulae for the multiplicities of the gamma photons emitted by both spontaneous and induced fissions, and to perform a quantitative analysis. In addition, neutron and gamma multiplicities are calculated by Monte Carlo simulation using a modified version of the MCNP-PoliMi code. Good agreement is found between the analytical formulae and the Monte Carlo results. The results show the potential advantage of using gamma multiplicities when compared to neutron multiplicities: their higher quantitative values may, in principle, have the effect of leading to a larger sensitivity on the sample mass when compared to the analysis based on neutrons alone.

Probability generating functions

Nuclear safeguards

Monte Carlo

Gamma counting


Material accounting


Imre Pazsit

Chalmers, Institutionen för reaktorfysik

Sara A. Pozzi

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment

0168-9002 (ISSN)

Vol. 555 A 340-346


Subatomär fysik

Annan naturresursteknik