Dynamics and Applications of Long Josephson Junctions
The first object of this work is to theoretically study the effects of tunnel junction parameters on flux-flow Josephson oscillators (FFOs) by numerical simulation and to experimentally study the rf properties of FFOs by integrating them together with an SIS (superconductor-insulator-superconductor) mixer/detector on a chip.
By using a CAD modeled integrated sub-mm wave receiver, the composite linewidth of two FFOs was measured to be less than 2.1 MHz in the band 280-330 GHz. The receiver consists of two identical FFOs and an SIS mixer. The linewidth was determined by mixing the two signals in the SIS mixer and analyzing the intermediate frequency. The output power coupled to a 10 .OMEGA. microstripline was about 0.5 µW, and could be adjusted by changing the current bias of the oscillator. The FFOs are connected to the SIS mixer via interdigital capacitors. The FFOs and the SIS element are made of Nb/NbOx/PbBi junctions by the "reactive ion beam oxidation" technique with the critical current density jc controlled by the oxidation time. Lift-off stencils for defining the junction sizes and the top-electrodes were made by using electron-beam writing on PMMA/Copolymer double layer resist.
The jc of a long Josephson junction (LJJ) determines the fluxon motion. For LJJs which had jc > 1 kA/cm2, velocity-matching (VM, where the phase velocity of propagating fluxons equals that of the electromagnetic wave in the LJJ) steps could be tuned linearly from about 0.2 to 1.4 mV by an applied magnetic field. Coupled radiation at around 100 GHz (about 3 nW), 261 GHz (4.6 nW), and 330 GHz (0.43 µW), from flux-flow oscillations, was observed. From the step's steepness, the junction quality factor QJ is determined. QJ is between 4 to 7 in the voltage range of 0.4 to 1 mV. Coupled radiation (> 3 nW) at around 100 GHz corresponding to resonant soliton oscillation in low jc samples (250 to 1000 A/cm2) was detected.
Simulations show that, for a uniform bias feed, the height of the VM step .gammam increases almost linearly with the external magnetic field .beta.e and the quasiparticle loss .alpha., but is less dependent on the surface loss .beta.. An approximate expression
.gammam = a + .alpha(1+b).beta.e
agrees with simulations. The maximum ac output voltage decreases with increasing dampings .alpha. and .beta.. It is important to include the .beta.-term in the mathematical model.
The second part of this work is devoted to rf properties of long YBa2Cu3O7-.delta. (YBCO) grain boundary junctions made on 0- 32 °. -tilt YSZ bicrystals. Josephson flux-flow resonances and Fiske resonances were observed. The first resonances could be tuned from about 0.5 to 2.0 mV in a 30 µm long junction at 16 K, and we determined the ratio between barrier thickness and relative dielectric constant td/.epsilon.r=2.9 Å and the loss .alpha.= 1.3 at 16 K. Simulations support the experimental observation that Josephson vortices can propagate unidirectionally in an overdamped, homogeneous junction up to .alpha.Ã? 2. From the Fiske resonances at 256-638 GHz, their Q-values, and the Steward-McCumber parameter, we find td/.epsilon.r=4 Å, the London penetration depth .gamma.L=145Â±5 nm and the surface resistance RS ~20 m.OMEGA. at 280 GHz. We conclude that the boundary is dielectric and the YBCO grains are well superconducting within 5-20 nm from the boundary. The dielectric between the grains could be part of a tunnel barrier and/or a matrix for filamentary conduction.
Josephson flux-flow transitors based on long bicrystal junctions were made with an Au loop used as the control line. The line modulated the critical current Ic. Current gain larger than unity was obtained below 70 K. The gain increased with the junction length and varied roughly like the square root Ic when adjusting the temperature. A transresistance larger than 5 .OMEGA. was obtained at 15 K. Better performance is expected from junctions with high current densities.