Analysis of phasic and tonic electromyographic signal characteristics: Electromyographic synthesis and comparison of novel morphological and linear-envelope approaches
Artikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift, 2009

The pattern of tonic and phasic components in an EMG signal reflects the underlying behaviour of the central nervous system (CNS) in controlling the musculature. One avenue for gaining a better understanding of this behaviour is to seek a quantitative characterisation of these phasic and tonic components. We propose that these signal characteristics call range between unvarying, tonic and intermittent, phasic activation through a continuum of EMG amplitude modulation. In this paper, we present two new algorithms for quantifying amplitude modulation: a linear-envelope approach, and a mathematical morphology approach. In addition we present all algorithm for synthesising EMG signals with known amplitude modulation. The efficacy of the synthesis algorithm is demonstrated using real EMG data. We present an evaluation and comparison of the two algorithms for quantifying amplitude modulation based on synthetic data generated by the proposed synthesis algorithm. The results demonstrate that the EMG synthesis parameters represent 91.9% and 96.2% of the variance of linear-envelopes extracted from lumbo-pelvic muscle EMG signals collected from subjects performing a repetitive-movement task. This depended, however, on the muscle and movement-speed considered (F = 4.02, p < 0.001). Coefficients of determination between input and output amplitude modulation variables were used to quantify the accuracy of the linear-envelope and morphological signal processing algorithms. The linear-envelope algorithm exhibited higher coefficients of determination than the most accurate morphological approach (and hence greater accuracy, T = 8.16, p < 0.001). similarly, the standard deviation of the coefficients of determination was 1.691 times smaller (p < 0.001). This signal processing algorithm represents a novel tool for the quantification of amplitude modulation in continuous EMG signals and can be used in the study of CNS motor control of the Musculature in repetitive-movement tasks. (c) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


respiratory activation

trunk muscles

motor control

human diaphragm

amplitude modulation





surface electromyography


D. L. Belavy

Andrew Mehnert

Chalmers, Signaler och system

S. Wilson

C. A. Richardson

Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology

1050-6411 (ISSN)

Vol. 19 1 10-21


Livsvetenskaper och teknik (2010-2018)



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