Microaerobic glycerol formation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
Artikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift, 2000
The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae produces large amounts of glycerol as an osmoregulator during hyperosmotic stress and as a redox sink at low oxygen availability. NAD+-dependent glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase in S. cerevisiae is present in two isoforms, coded for by two different genes, GPD1 and GPD2. Mutants for either one or both of these genes were investigated under carefully controlled static and dynamic conditions in continuous cultures at low oxygen transfer rates. Our results show that S. cerevisiae controls the production of glycerol in response to hypoxic conditions by regulating the expression of several genes. At high demand for NADH reoxidation, a strong induction was seen not only of the GPD2 gene, but also of GPP1, encoding one of the molecular forms of glycerol-3-phosphatase. Induction of the GPP1 gene appears to play a decisive role at elevated growth rates. At low demand for NADH reoxidation via glycerol formation, the GPD1, GPD2, GPP1, and GPP2 genes were all expressed at basal levels. The dynamics of the gene induction and the glycerol formation at low demand for NADH reoxidation point to an important role of the Gpd1p; deletion of the GPD1 gene strongly altered the expression patterns of the GPD2 and GPP1 genes under such conditions. Furthermore, our results indicate that GCY1 and DAK1, tentatively encoding glycerol dehydrogenase and dihydroxyacetone kinase, respectively, may be involved in the redox regulation of S. cerevisiae.