Effects of Seven Antifouling Compounds on Photosynthesis and Inorganic Carbon Use in Sugar Kelp Saccharina latissima (Linnaeus)
Artikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift, 2012
Macroalgae depend on carbon-concentrating mechanisms (CCMs) to maintain a high photosynthetic activity under conditions of low carbon dioxide (CO2) availability. Because such conditions are prevalent in marine environments, CCMs are important for upholding the macroalgal primary productivity in coastal zones. This study evaluated the effects of seven antifouling compounds-chlorothalonil, DCOIT, dichlofluanid, diuron, irgarol, tolylfluanid, and zinc pyrithione (ZnTP)-on the photosynthesis and CCM of sugar kelp (Saccharina latissima (L.)). Concentration-response curves of these toxicants were established using inhibition of carbon incorporation, whereas their effects over time and their inhibition of the CCM were studied using inhibition of O-2 evolution. We demonstrate that exposure to all compounds except ZnTP (< 1000 nM) resulted in toxicity to photosynthesis of S. latissima. However, carbon incorporation and O-2 evolution differed in their ability to detect toxicity from some of the compounds. Diuron, irgarol, DCOIT, tolylfluanid, and, to some extent, dichlofluanid inhibited carbon incorporation. Chlorothalonil did not inhibit carbon incorporation but clearly inhibited oxygen (O-2) evolution. Photosynthesis showed only little recovery during the 2-h postexposure period. Inhibition of photosynthesis even increased after the end of exposure to chlorothalonil and tolylfluanid. Through changes in pH of the medium, toxic effects on the CCM could be studied isolated from photosynthesis effects. The CCM of S. latissima was inhibited by chlorothalonil, DCOIT, dichlofluanid, and tolylfluanid. Such inhibition of the CCM, or the absence thereof, deepens the understanding the mechanism of action of the studied compounds.
fungicide chlorothalonil 2