Conditional Cash Transfers and Payments for Environmental Services—A Conceptual Framework for Explaining and Judging Differences in Outcomes
Artikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift, 2013

We develop a conceptual framework elucidating the main determinants of the impact of Conditional Cash Transfer (CCT) and Payments for Environmental Services (PES) programs. Using a simple multi-agent model and evaluations of existing programs, we show that (1) the share of the population who would meet the program’s conditions in the absence of payments is a powerful predictor of program efficiency, and that (2) program efficiency is eroded by selection bias (people who already meet conditions self-select into the programs at higher rates than others). We then discuss possibilities for increasing efficiency and criteria for evaluating and choosing between CCTs/PES or other policy instruments.

developing countries

payments for environmental services

program evaluation


conditional cash transfer



Martin Persson

Göteborgs universitet

Chalmers, Energi och miljö, Fysisk resursteori

Francisco Alpizar

Center for Tropical Agricultural Research and Education Costa Rica

World Development

0305-750X (ISSN)

Vol. 43 124-137


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