Thermoeconomic design optimization of a thermo-electric energy storage system based on transcritical CO2 cycles
Artikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift, 2013
The conceptual design of a thermo-electric energy storage (TEES) system for large scale electricity storage is discussed in this work by showing the results of the thermoeconomic optimization of three different system configurations that were identified in previous works. The system is based on transcritical CO2 cycles, water storage and salt-water ice storage and is designed for a capacity of 2 h discharge and equal charge and discharge power of 50 MW. A two-step optimization procedure is used. The system intensive design parameters are optimized at the master level through a genetic algorithm. The optimal cycle mass flow rates are calculated in a nested linear programming step where the heat integration between the cycles is optimized subject to the heat transfer feasibility imposed through Pinch Analysis cascade calculations. The synthesis of the heat exchanger network and of the storage tank systems was solved through a set of heuristic rules. Equipment purchasing costs were estimated by means of cost functions that were built upon vendors quotations. The results are discussed by showing the Pareto fronts of the three optimization cases and the trends of the decision variables along each optimal front. Nine solutions are discussed in more detail by showing the values of the design parameters and the process flow diagrams including storage and heat exchanger layouts. Design guidelines are then formulated which can be used in future works for detail plant design. The topological features that are found to maximize the system performance at the minimum costs are: superheating before the CO2 heat pump, two independent systems of hot water storage tanks above and below the ambient temperature, and air cooling at the heat pump side. The design parameters that affect significantly the costs and performances are the cycle pressures. These are in fact directly associated with temperature differences both at the cold and hot storage sides which should be carefully optimized to obtain the best trade-off between exergy losses and costs for heat exchangers. Due to the change in specific heat of the supercritical CO2 along the temperature range of hot water storage, a system of multiple storage tanks was used. Intermediate storage tanks help reduce significantly the temperature differences at the hot storage side and therefore their number represent another critical design parameter that must be optimized to achieve the best trade-off between costs and performances.
Transcritical CO2 cycles