New in-situ neutron diffraction cell for electrode materials
Artikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift, 2014
A novel neutron diffraction cell has been constructed to allow in-situ studies of the structural changes in materials of relevance to battery applications during charge/discharge cycling. The new design is based on the coin cell geometry, but has larger dimensions compared to typical commercial batteries in order to maximize the amount of electrode material and thus, collect diffraction data of good statistical quality within the shortest possible time. An important aspect of the design is its modular nature, allowing flexibility in both the materials studied and the battery configuration. This paper reports electrochemical tests using a Nickel-metal-hydride battery (Ni-MH), which show that the cell is able to deliver 90% of its theoretical capacity when using deuterated components. Neutron diffraction studies performed on the Polaris diffractometer using nickel metal and a hydrogen-absorbing alloy (MH) clearly show observable changes in the neutron diffraction patterns as a function of the discharge state. Due to the high quality of the diffraction patterns collected in-situ (i.e. good peak-to-background ratio), phase analysis and peak indexing can be performed successfully using data collected in around 30 min. In addition to this, structural parameters for the beta-phase (charged) MH electrode obtained by Rietveld refinement are presented. (C) 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.