Modelling of Demand Response in Distribution Systems
Doktorsavhandling, 2014

Large scale integration of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) and intermittent renewable energy sources, such as solar PV and wind power, could affect the way in which the power system is planned, operated and controlled. In such systems, it could be desirable to utilize the flexibility of the demand, i.e. demand response (DR), to help maintain the balance between the supply and the demand, and to avoid or defer grid reinforcements. One approach to promote DR could be through the use of hourly electricity tariffs based on electricity prices on the day-ahead market. In this context, a PEV could be seen as a flexible load, due to the possibility to schedule its charging. The main purposes of this thesis are to investigate: the impact of PEVs on distribution systems; strategies to schedule the charging and other flexible loads; customers' benefits of scheduling their loads according to these strategies; and the influence of different network tariffs in combination with hourly electricity pricing. Furthermore, the possible synergy between DR and wind power is investigated. The results show a large difference in possible PEV penetration levels between the investigated areas. The distribution system in the commercial area investigated could handle a full PEV penetration without any overloading while the residential distribution system was experiencing transformer overloading even without PEVs. By scheduling the charging in order to minimize the losses, the residential distribution system all cars could be replaced by PEVs without increased peak demand. If instead the day-ahead market prices were used as scheduling signals, 24\% of the cars could be replaced by PEVs without increased peak demand. By considering other flexible loads, such as electric space-heating, the residential distribution system would experience a decreased peak demand, if up to 25\% of the customers were responsive to day-ahead market prices and if an energy based network tariff was used. For higher shares of responsive customers, the peak demand was increased, due to an increased coincident factor. By using a power based network tariff instead, the peak demand could be reduced even if all customers were responsive. From a customer perspective, a cost reduction of up to approximately 10\% could be achieved by actively managing the flexible loads. With PEVs available, a cost reduction of up to 13\% could be reached. For customers with large variations in their demand, a power based network tariff would be preferable, while for other customers, the difference in benefits between the network tariffs was found to be small. The possible economic benefit for wind power producers in power systems with DR, was found to be slightly decreased for several price-areas, although the total benefit of all wind power producers was increased. From a customer perspective, the interaction between DR and wind power could lead to a cost reduction for responsive customers in some areas whereas the cost was increased for responsive customers in other areas.

Opponent: Wil Kling, Professor, Technische Universiteit Eindhoven


David Steen

Chalmers, Energi och miljö, Elkraftteknik

Assessment of Electric Vehicle Charging Scenarios Based on Demographical Data

IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid,; Vol. 3(2012)p. 1457-1468

Artikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift

Optimal load management of electric heating and PEV loads in a residential distribution system in Sweden

IEEE PES Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Conference Europe. 2nd IEEE PES International Conference and Exhibition on Innovative Smart Grid Technologies, ISGT Europe 2011, Manchester;5 - 7 December 2011,; (2011)

Paper i proceeding

Evaluating the Customers’ Benefits of Hourly Pricing Based on Day-Ahead Spot Market

CIRED 22nd International Conference on Electricity Distribution, 10-13 June 2013, Stockholm, Sweden,; Vol. 2013(2013)

Paper i proceeding

Impact assessment of wind power and demand side management on day-ahead market price

Innovative Smart Grid Technologies conference Europe (ISGT Europe), Istanbul, Turkey, October 12-15, 2014,; Vol. 2015-January(2015)

Paper i proceeding

Modeling of Thermal Storage Systems in MILP Distributed Energy Resource Models,

Applied Energy,; Vol. 137(2015)p. 782-792

Artikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift

Scheduling Charging of Electric Vehicles for Optimal Distribution Systems Planning and Operation

CIRED 21st International Conference on Electricity Distribution, Frankfurt, 6-9 June 2011,; (2011)

Paper i proceeding

Effects of Plug-in Electric Vehicles on Distribution Systems: The Real Case of Gothenburg

IEEE PES Conference on Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Europe, Gothenburg, Sweden, October 10-13, 2010,; (2010)

Paper i proceeding





Annan elektroteknik och elektronik



Doktorsavhandlingar vid Chalmers tekniska högskola. Ny serie


Opponent: Wil Kling, Professor, Technische Universiteit Eindhoven

Mer information