Non-methane volatile organic compounds predict odor emitted from five tunnel ventilated broiler sheds
Artikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift, 2014
Non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) emitted from mechanically ventilated poultry sheds in similar stages (32-36d) of broiler production were measured by thermal desorption-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (TD-GC/MS), then identified using parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC2) and the NIST11 database. Calibration models predicting odor measured by dilution olfactometry from NMVOC concentrations via orthogonal projection to latent structures (O-PLS) made good predictions (Rp2=0.83-0.87, RMSEp=137-175OU) using one to eight NMVOCs with either one or two latent variables representing odor concentration and character, respectively. Similar changes in odorant composition were observed in each sampling campaign, with samples collected early in the day more odorous and more sulfurous than samples collected later in the day. High litter moisture favored sulfur-containing odorants over alcohols, aldehydes and ketones but had little bearing on perceived odor, whereas high bird density favored alcohols, aldehydes and ketones over sulfur-containing odorants. Eight VOCs that were important predictors of odor across all sheds in order of decreasing importance were dimethyl sulfide (DMS), dimethyl trisulfide (DMTS), 2-3 butanedione, 3-methyl-butanal, 1-butanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, acetoin, and 2-butanone. Four additional NMVOCs also influenced perceived odor although less predictably; these were n-hexane, 2-butanol, dimethyl disulfide (DMDS), and 1-octen-3-ol. All of the odorants are associated with microbial or fungal activity in the litter and manure, except n-hexane, which may originate from hexane-extracted soybean meal in the chicken feed. The organosulfides measured in this study may have arisen from the field sites as well as from the degradation of thiols captured on sorbent tubes during analysis by TD-GC/MS. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.