On the use of alternative fuels in rotary kiln burners - An experimental and modelling study of the effect on the radiative heat transfer conditions
Artikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift, 2015

Abstract In this work, the radiative heat transfer conditions in a 400 kWfuel test furnace were studied. The test furnace is a scaled pilot of a rotary kiln furnace used in iron ore pellet production. In particular, the study focuses on the choice of fuel and the subsequent effect on temperature and radiative conditions in the flame. Several co-firing flames of coal and biomass were investigated and also other fuels such as heavy fuel oil and natural gas. The test furnace was used in the experiments, and radiative intensity was measured with a narrow angle radiometer. Detailed radiation modelling was performed using spectral models for gas and particle properties. The results show that all co-firing flames give a shorter radiating flame length. Based on the radiation modelling, it was also shown that the particle radiation dominates the heat transfer from the flames. Due to the high pre-heating temperature of the combustion air (1100°C), the flame temperatures were generally very high. The flame temperature in the natural gas flame was likely around 2000°C while the coal flame temperatures were estimated to 1500-1600°C. The two coals tested, having almost identical fuel specifications, resulted in a substantial difference in the radiation intensity emitted by the flame. This emphasizes the need of direct radiation measurements to evaluate fuel changes in industrial processes that are highly dependent on the heat transfer conditions.

Radiative intensity

Particle radiation

Radiative heat transfer

Rotary kilns



Daniel Bäckström

Chalmers, Energi och miljö, Energiteknik

Robert Johansson

Chalmers, Energi och miljö, Energiteknik

Klas Andersson

Chalmers, Energi och miljö, Energiteknik

H. Wiinikka

Energy Technology Centre

Christian Fredriksson

Luossavaara Kiirunavaara Aktiebolag (LKAB)

Fuel Processing Technology

0378-3820 (ISSN)

Vol. 138 210-220