The nine lives of cosmic rays in galaxies
Artikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift, 2015

© 2015 by Annual Reviews. Cosmic-ray astrophysics has advanced rapidly in recent years, and its impact on other astronomical disciplines has broadened. Many new experiments measuring these particles, both directly in the atmosphere or space and indirectly via γ rays and synchrotron radiation, have widened the range and quality of the information available on their origin, propagation, and interactions. The impact of low-energy cosmic rays on interstellar chemistry is a fast-developing topic, including the propagation of these particles into the clouds in which the chemistry occurs. Cosmic rays, via their γ-ray production, also provide a powerful way to probe the gas content of the interstellar medium. Substantial advances have been made in the observations and modelling of the interplay between cosmic rays and the interstellar medium. Focusing on energies up to 1 TeV, these interrelating aspects are covered at various levels of detail, giving a guide to the state of the subject.



Interstellar chemistry

Interstellar medium

γ rays


I.A. Grenier

Centre national de la recherche scientifique (CNRS)

John H Black

Chalmers, Rymd- och geovetenskap, Radioastronomi och astrofysik

A.W. Strong


Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics

0066-4146 (ISSN) 1545-4282 (eISSN)

Vol. 53 1 199-246


Subatomär fysik

Astronomi, astrofysik och kosmologi


Grundläggande vetenskaper


Onsala rymdobservatorium



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