Efficacy of fish intake on vitamin D status: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
Artikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift, 2015
Background: It is well known that fish is the major natural source of vitamin D in the diet; therefore, this meta-analysis investigated the influence of fish consumption in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations. Objective: A literature search was carried out in Medline, Embase, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library (up to February 2014) for RCTs that investigated the effect of fish consumption on 25(OH)D concentrations in comparison to other dietary interventions. Results: Seven articles and 2 unpublished study data sets with 640 subjects and 14 study groups met the inclusion criteria and were included in this meta-analysis. Compared with controls, the consumption of fish increased 25(OH)D concentrations, on average, by 4.4 nmol/L (95% CI: 1.7, 7.1 nmol/L; P < 0.0001, I-2 = 25%; 9 studies). The type of the fish also played a key role: the consumption of fatty fish resulted in a mean difference of 6.8 nmol/L (95% CI: 3.7, 9.9 nmol/L; P < 0.0001, I-2 = 0%; 7 study groups), whereas for lean fish the mean difference was 1.9 nmol/L (95% CI: -2.3, 6.0 nmol/L; P < 0.38, I-2 = 37%; 7 study groups). Short-term studies (4-8 wk) showed a mean difference of 3.8 nmol/L (95% CI: 0.6, 6.9 nmol/L; P < 0.02, I-2 = 38%; 10 study groups), whereas in long-term studies (similar to 6 mo) the mean difference was 8.3 nmol/L (95% CI: 2.1, 14.5 nmol/L; P < 0.009, I-2 = 0%; 4 study groups). Conclusion: As the major food source of vitamin D, fish consumption increases concentrations of 25(OH)D, although recommended fish intakes cannot optimize vitamin D status.
randomized controlled trial