Identification of geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase genes from Tripterygium wilfordii
Artikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift, 2015
We found triptolide synthesis is correlated with the expressions of TwGGPPS1 and TwGGPPS4 . This lays the foundation for future studies of biosynthetic pathways for triptolide and other diterpenoids in T. wilfordii. Tripterygium wilfordii is a traditional Chinese medical plant commonly used to treat rheumatoid arthritis. One of its main bioactive compounds is triptolide, which is identified as an abietane-type diterpenoid natural product. Geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase (GGPPS) catalyses the synthesis of GGPP (geranylgeranyl diphosphate), the common precursor of diterpenes, and is therefore a crucial enzyme in diterpene biosynthesis. A previous study showed that GGPP could be catalyzed by copalyl diphosphate synthase and kaurene synthase like of Salvia miltiorrhiza (SmCPS, SmKSL) to miltiradiene, a key intermediate in tanshinone biosynthesis. In this paper, five new full-length cDNAs (TwGGPPS) encoding GGPP synthases were cloned from T. wilfordii. Sequence comparisons revealed that all six TwGGPPSs (including TwGGPPS2 cloned previously) exhibit similarities to GGPPSs of other plants. Subsequent functional complement assays demonstrated that TwGGPPS1, TwGGPPS4 and TwGGPPS5 can participate in miltiradiene biosynthesis in the recombinant E. coli. Correlation analysis of gene expressions and secondary metabolite accumulation indicated that TwGGPPS1 and TwGGPPS4 are likely involved in the biosynthesis of triptolide. These findings lay the foundation for future studies of the biosynthetic pathways for triptolide and other diterpenoids in T. wilfordii.