Current trends and future challenges of electrolytes for sodium-ion batteries
Artikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift, 2016
Research and development efforts on sodium-ion batteries are gaining momentum due to their potential to accommodate high energy density coupled with relatively lower cost in comparison with lithium-ion batteries. In order for the sodium-ion batteries to be commercially viable, high performance electrolytes with acceptable ambient temperature ionic conductivity and wider electrochemical stability windows are being developed. A bibliometric analysis of the publications on various types of Na+ ion conducting electrolytes since 1990 shows a total of 200 + publications and reveals an exponential growth in the last few years, due to reasons that the sodium-ion systems promise great potential as the future large scale power sources for variety of applications. This review consolidates the status of liquid (non-aqueous, aqueous and ionic), polymer gel and solid (ceramics, glasses, and solid polymers) electrolytes and discusses their ionic conductivity, thermal characteristics, electrochemical stability and viscosity towards applications in sodium-ion batteries. Among various types available, the non-aqueous solvent based electrolyte is the most promising one in terms of ionic conductivity even though it is flammable. Copyright (C) 2015, Hydrogen Energy Publications, LLC. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sodium ion batteries