A low-cost infrared-optical head tracking solution for virtual 3D audio environment using the Nintendo Wii-remote
Artikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift, 2016

A virtual audio system needs to track both the translation and rotation of an observer to simulate a realistic sound environment. Current existing virtual audio systems either do not fully account for rotation or require the user to carry a controller at all times. This paper presents a three-dimensional (3D) virtual audio system with a head tracking unit that fully accounts for both translation and rotation of a user without the need of a controller. The system consists of four infrared light-emitting diodes on the user's headset together with a Wii-remote to track their movement through a graphical user interface. The system was tested with a simulation that used a pinhole camera model to map the 3D-coordinates of each diode onto the two-dimensional (2D) camera plane. This simulation of 3D head movement yields 2D coordinate data that were put into the tracking algorithm and to reproduced the 3D motion. The results from a prototype system, assembled to track the 3D movements of a rigid object were also consistent with the simulation results. The tracking system has been integrated into an Ericsson 3D-audio system and its effectiveness has been verified in a headtracked virtual 3D-audio system with real-time animating graphical outputs.

Head tracking


3D audio rendering

Virtual 3D audio system

Rigid body

Degrees of freedom


Yashar Deldjoo

Chalmers, Signaler och system

R.E. Atani

The University of Guilan

Entertainment Computing

1875-9521 (ISSN)

Vol. 12 9-27


Elektroteknik och elektronik