ALMA resolves the torus of NGC 1068: Continuum and molecular line emission
Artikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift, 2016

We used the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) to map the emission of the CO(6-5) molecular line and the 432 mu m continuum emission from the 300 pc sized circumnuclear disk (CND) of the nearby Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 1068 with a spatial resolution of similar to 4 pc. These observations spatially resolve the CND and, for the first time, image the dust emission, the molecular gas distribution, and the kinematics from a 7-10 pc diameter disk that represents the submillimeter counterpart of the putative torus of NGC 1068. We fitted the nuclear spectral energy distribution of the torus using ALMA and near-and mid-infrared (NIR/MIR) data with CLUMPY torus models. The mass and radius of the best-fit solution for the torus are both consistent with the values derived from the ALMA data alone: M-gas(torus) = (1 +/- 0.3) x 10(5) M-circle dot and R-torus = 3.5 +/- 0.5 pc. The dynamics of the molecular gas in the torus show strong non-circular motions and enhanced turbulence superposed on a surprisingly slow rotation pattern of the disk. By contrast with the nearly edge-on orientation of the H2O megamaser disk, we found evidence suggesting that the molecular torus is less inclined (i = 34 degrees-66 degrees) at larger radii. The lopsided morphology and complex kinematics of the torus could be the signature of the Papaloizou-Pringle instability, long predicted to likely drive the dynamical evolution of active galactic nuclei tori.

galaxies: individual (NGC 1068)

galaxies: nuclei

galaxies: ISM

galaxies: kinematics and dynamics

galaxies: Seyfert


S. G. Burillo


F. Combes

College de France

C. R. Almeida

Instituto Astrofisico de Canarias

Universidad de la Laguna

A. Usero


M. Krips

Institut de RadioAstronomie Millimetrique (IRAM)

A. Alonso-Herrero

CSIC-INTA - Centro de Astrobiologia (CAB)

Susanne Aalto

Chalmers, Rymd- och geovetenskap, Radioastronomi och astrofysik

V. Casasola

Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri

L. K. Hunt

Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri

S. Martin

European Southern Observatory Santiago

Atacama Large Millimeter-submillimeter Array

S. Viti

University College London (UCL)

L. Colina

Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (UAM)

CSIC-INTA - Centro de Astrobiologia (CAB)

Francesco Costagliola

Chalmers, Rymd- och geovetenskap, Radioastronomi och astrofysik

A. Eckart

Universität zu Köln

A. Fuente


C. Henkel

Max Planck-institutet

King Abdul Azizi University

I. Marquez

CSIC - Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (IAA)

R. Neri

Institut de RadioAstronomie Millimetrique (IRAM)

E. Schinnerer

Max Planck-institutet

L. J. Tacconi

Max Planck-institutet

P.P. van der Werf

Universiteit Leiden

Astrophysical Journal Letters

2041-8205 (ISSN) 2041-8213 (eISSN)

Vol. 823 Art. no. L12- L12


Astronomi, astrofysik och kosmologi