Controlled Chemistry Approach to the Oxo-Functionalization of Graphene
Graphene is the best-studied 2D material available. However, its production is still challenging and the quality depends on the preparation procedure. Now, more than a decade after the outstanding experiments conducted on graphene, the most successful wet-chemical approach to graphene and functionalized graphene is based on the oxidation of graphite. Graphene oxide has been known for more than a century; however, the structure bears variable large amounts of lattice defects that render the development of a controlled chemistry impossible. The controlled oxo-functionalization of graphene avoids the formation of defects within the ?-framework of carbon atoms, making the synthesis of specific molecular architectures possible. The scope of this review is to introduce the field of oxo-functionalizing graphene. In particular, the differences between GO and oxo-functionalized graphene are described in detail. Moreover analytical methods that allow determining lattice defects and functional groups are introduced followed by summarizing the current state of controlled oxo-functionalization of graphene.