Performance of an in situ passive sampling system for metals in stormwater
Artikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift, 2002
A passive sampler has been developed and is demonstrated in situ for urban runoff. The passive sampler is compared to conventional composite (time-dependent and flow-weighted) bottle sampling during and between storm events. The sampling was carried out at established stormwater stations; before and after a stormwater detention pond. In situ deployment of the passive sampler provides the metal concentrations, corresponding to the electrochemically available fraction of total metal, for time-dependent samples collected in parallel. The sampler provides improved accuracy compared to bottle sampling because contamination during sample transport and handling is minimised. Laboratory handling is reduced by direct analysis of the accumulated metals on the receiving membrane by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Passive sampling also solves the problem of metal speciation change during transport to the laboratory, which is a potential problem for bottle samples. The low cost and convenience of the passive sampler and subsequent analysis should allow significantly more extensive spatial and temporal monitoring of metals in the aquatic environment than has previously been possible.