Counterintuitive Reconstruction of the Polar O-Terminated ZnO Surface with Zinc Vacancies and Hydrogen
Artikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift, 2016
Understanding the structure of ZnO surface reconstructions and their resultant properties is crucial to the rational design of ZnO-containing devices ranging from optoelectronics to catalysts. Here, we are motivated by recent experimental work that showed a new surface reconstruction containing Zn vacancies ordered in a Zn(3 X 3) pattern in the subsurface of (0001)-O-terminated ZnO. Reconstruction with Zn vacancies on (0001)-O is surprising and counterintuitive because Zn vacancies enhance the surface dipole rather than reduce it. In this work, we show using density functional theory (DFT) that subsurface Zn vacancies can form on (0001)-O when coupled with adsorption of surface H and are in fact stable under a wide range of common conditions. We also show that these vacancies have a significant ordering tendency and that Sb-doping-created subsurface inversion domain boundaries (IDBs) enhance the driving force of Zn vacancy alignment into large domains of the Zn(3 X 3) reconstruction.