Hostile urban architecture: A critical discussion of the seemingly offensive art of keeping people away
Reviewartikel, 2017

For many years, some urban architecture has aimed to exclude unwanted groups of people from some locations. This type of architecture is called "defensive" or "hostile" architecture and includes benches that cannot be slept on, spikes in the ground that cannot be stood on, and pieces of metal that hinder one's ability to skateboard. These defensive measures have sparked public outrage, with many thinking such measures lead to suffering, are disrespectful, and violate people's rights. In this paper, it is argued that these views are difficult to defend and that much more empirical research on the topic is needed.

anti-homeless spike

urban planning


right to public space

Defensive architecture

bum-proof benches

hostile architecture


Karl de Fine Licht

Chalmers, Teknikens ekonomi och organisation, Science, Technology and Society

Etikk i Praksis

1890-3991 (ISSN) 1890-4009 (eISSN)

Vol. 11 2 27-44





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