Grip control and motor coordination with implanted and surface electrodes while grasping with an osseointegrated prosthetic hand
Artikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift, 2019

Background: Replacement of a lost limb by an artificial substitute is not yet ideal. Resolution and coordination of motor control approximating that of a biological limb could dramatically improve the functionality of prosthetic devices, and thus reduce the gap towards a suitable limb replacement.

Methods: In this study, we investigated the control resolution and coordination exhibited by subjects with transhumeral amputation who were implanted with epimysial electrodes and an osseointegrated interface that provides bidirectional communication in addition to skeletal attachment (e-OPRA Implant System). We assessed control resolution and coordination in the context of routine and delicate grasping using the Pick and Lift and the Virtual Eggs Tests. Performance when utilizing implanted electrodes was compared with the standard-of-care technology for myoelectric prostheses, namely surface electrodes.

Results: Results showed that implanted electrodes provide superior controllability over the prosthetic terminal device compared to conventional surface electrodes. Significant improvements were found in the control of the grip force and its reliability during object transfer. However, these improvements failed to increase motor coordination, and surprisingly decreased the temporal correlation between grip and load forces observed with surface electrodes. We found that despite being more functional and reliable, prosthetic control via implanted electrodes still depended highly on visual feedback.

Conclusions: Our findings indicate that incidental sensory feedback (visual, auditory, and osseoperceptive in this case) is insufficient for restoring natural grasp behavior in amputees, and support the idea that supplemental tactile sensory feedback is needed to learn and maintain the motor tasks internal model, which could ultimately restore natural grasp behavior in subjects using prosthetic hands.


Electromyography (EMG)

Prosthetic control


Implanted electrodes


Enzo Mastinu

Chalmers, Elektroteknik, Signalbehandling och medicinsk teknik

Francesco Clemente

Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna (SSSUP)

Paolo Sassu

Sahlgrenska universitetssjukhuset

Oskar C. Aszmann

Medizinische Universität Wien

Rickard Brånemark

Göteborgs universitet

Bo Håkansson

Chalmers, Elektroteknik, Signalbehandling och medicinsk teknik

Marco Controzzi

Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna (SSSUP)

Christian Cipriani

Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna (SSSUP)

Max Jair Ortiz Catalan

Chalmers, Elektroteknik, Signalbehandling och medicinsk teknik

Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation

1743-0003 (ISSN)

Vol. 16 1 49




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