Large-Scale Proton-Implant-Defined VCSEL Arrays with Narrow Beamwidth
Artikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift, 2018

In-phase coherently coupled proton-implant-defined vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) arrays face difficulties in current spreading, resulting in small array scale, low output power, and broad beamwidth. Although patterned metal grids can improve the current spreading, the undesirable out-of-phase mode tends to be dominant in the array. In this letter, by means of engineering the implantation and array parameters, in-phase mode is obtained in large-scale proton-implant-defined arrays with metal grids. Experimental results show that these arrays are operating in in-phase mode with a nominal interelement spacing of 8 μm and an implantation depth of 2.22 μm. By using these parameters, a 5 × 5 in-phase array with a narrow beamwidth (far-field full width at half maximum) of 1.61° is realized. Besides, a 10 × 10 in-phase array with a beamwidth of 1.89° and an output power of 10.25 mW for the in-phase mode is achieved. The calculation of far fields is performed to confirm the in-phase operation measured results. Such a simple and low-cost technology provides a promising method for preparing large-scale in-phase coherently coupled VCSEL arrays.

VCSEL array


narrow beamwidth

proton implantation


G. Z. Pan

Beijing University of Technology

Y. Xie

Beijing University of Technology

Chen Xu

Beijing University of Technology

M. Xun

Beijing University of Technology

Y. B. Dong

Beijing University of Technology

Jun Deng

Beijing University of Technology

Jie Sun

Chalmers, Mikroteknologi och nanovetenskap (MC2), Kvantkomponentfysik

Beijing University of Technology

IEEE Electron Device Letters

0741-3106 (ISSN)

Vol. 39 390-393


Atom- och molekylfysik och optik

Annan fysik

Annan elektroteknik och elektronik