Toward Harmonizing Ecotoxicity Characterization in Life Cycle Impact Assessment
Artikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift, 2018

Ecosystem quality is an important area of protection in life cycle impact assessment (LCIA). Chemical pollution has adverse impacts on ecosystems on a global scale. To improve methods for assessing ecosystem impacts, the Life Cycle Initiative hosted by the United Nations Environment Programme established a task force to evaluate the state-of-the-science in modeling chemical exposure of organisms and the resulting ecotoxicological effects for use in LCIA. The outcome of the task force work will be global guidance and harmonization by recommending changes to the existing practice of exposure and effect modeling in ecotoxicity characterization. These changes will reflect the current science and ensure the stability of recommended practice. Recommendations must work within the needs of LCIA in terms of 1) operating on information from any inventory reporting chemical emissions with limited spatiotemporal information, 2) applying best estimates rather than conservative assumptions to ensure unbiased comparison with results for other impact categories, and 3) yielding results that are additive across substances and life cycle stages and that will allow a quantitative expression of damage to the exposed ecosystem. We describe the current framework and discuss research questions identified in a roadmap. Primary research questions relate to the approach toward ecotoxicological effect assessment, the need to clarify the method's scope and interpretation of its results, the need to consider additional environmental compartments and impact pathways, and the relevance of effect metrics other than the currently applied geometric mean of toxicity effect data across species. Because they often dominate ecotoxicity results in LCIA, we give metals a special focus, including consideration of their possible essentiality and changes in environmental bioavailability. We conclude with a summary of key questions along with preliminary recommendations to address them as well as open questions that require additional research efforts.

Environmental modeling

Species sensitivity distributions

Ecosystem exposure

Life cycle impact assessment



Alexi Ernstoff

Mikokaj Owsianiak

Danmarks Tekniske Universitet (DTU)

Nico Van Straalen

Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam

Dick de Zwart

Erwan Saouter

European Commission

Peter Fantke

Danmarks Tekniske Universitet (DTU)

Martina G. Vijver

Universiteit Leiden

Willie J.G.M Peijnenburg

Oliver Jolliet

University of Michigan

Tom McKone

University of California

Laura Goldsteijn

Robert Dwyer

International Copper Association

Nicolo Aurisano

Danmarks Tekniske Universitet (DTU)

Jane Bare

Thomas Backhaus

Göteborgs universitet

Cecile Bulle

Université du Québec

Peter Chapman

Hanna Holmquist

Chalmers, Teknikens ekonomi och organisation, Miljösystemanalys

Leo Posthuma

Radboud Universiteit

Sandra Roos

Chalmers, Teknikens ekonomi och organisation, Miljösystemanalys

Diederik Schowanek

Procter and Gamble

Michael Hauschild

Danmarks Tekniske Universitet (DTU)

Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry

0730-7268 (ISSN)

Vol. 37 12 2955-2971


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