Dose-Response-Time Data Analysis: An Underexploited Trinity
The most common approach to in vivo pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic analyses involves sequential analysis of the plasma concentration-and response-time data, such that the plasma kinetic model provides an independent function, driving the dynamics. However, in situations when plasma sampling may jeopardize the effect measurements or is scarce, nonexistent, or unlinked to the effect (e.g., in intensive care units, pediatric or frail elderly populations, or drug discovery), focusing on the response-time course alone may be an adequate alternative for pharmacodynamic analyses. Response-timedata inherently contain useful information about the turnover characteristics of response (target turnover rate, half-life of response), as well as the drug's biophase kinetics (biophase availability, absorption half-life, and disposition half-life) pharmacodynamic properties (potency, efficacy). The use of pharmacodynamic time-response data circumvents the need for a direct assay method for the drug and has the additional advantage of being applicable to cases of local drug administration close to its intended targets in the immediate vicinity of target, or when target precedes systemic plasma concentrations. This review exemplifies the potential of biophase functions in pharmacodynamic analyses in both preclinical and clinical studies, with the purpose of characterizing response data and optimizing subsequent study protocols. This article illustrates crucial determinants to the success of modeling dose-response-time (DRT) data, such as the dose selection, repeated dosing, and different input rates and routes. Finally, a literature search was also performed to gauge how frequently this technique has been applied in preclinical and clinical studies. This review highlights situations in which DRT should be carefully scrutinized and discusses future perspectives of the field.