Global, regional, and national comparative risk assessment of 84 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks for 195 countries and territories, 1990-2017: A systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017
Artikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift, 2018

Background The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2017 comparative risk assessment (CRA) is a comprehensive approach to risk factor quantification that offers a useful tool for synthesising evidence on risks and risk-outcome associations. With each annual GBD study, we update the GBD CRA to incorporate improved methods, new risks and risk-outcome pairs, and new data on risk exposure levels and risk- outcome associations. Methods We used the CRA framework developed for previous iterations of GBD to estimate levels and trends in exposure, attributable deaths, and attributable disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), by age group, sex, year, and location for 84 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or groups of risks from 1990 to 2017. This study included 476 risk-outcome pairs that met the GBD study criteria for convincing or probable evidence of causation. We extracted relative risk and exposure estimates from 46 749 randomised controlled trials, cohort studies, household surveys, census data, satellite data, and other sources. We used statistical models to pool data, adjust for bias, and incorporate covariates. Using the counterfactual scenario of theoretical minimum risk exposure level (TMREL), we estimated the portion of deaths and DALYs that could be attributed to a given risk. We explored the relationship between development and risk exposure by modelling the relationship between the Socio-demographic Index (SDI) and risk-weighted exposure prevalence and estimated expected levels of exposure and risk-attributable burden by SDI. Finally, we explored temporal changes in risk-attributable DALYs by decomposing those changes into six main component drivers of change as follows: (1) population growth; (2) changes in population age structures; (3) changes in exposure to environmental and occupational risks; (4) changes in exposure to behavioural risks; (5) changes in exposure to metabolic risks; and (6) changes due to all other factors, approximated as the risk-deleted death and DALY rates, where the risk-deleted rate is the rate that would be observed had we reduced the exposure levels to the TMREL for all risk factors included in GBD 2017.

Författare

Jeffrey D. Stanaway

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation

Ashkan Afshin

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation

Emmanuela Gakidou

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation

Stephen S. Lim

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation

Degu Abate

Haramaya University

Kalkidan Hassen Abate

Jimma University

Cristiana Abbafati

Jimma University

Nooshin Abbasi

Tehran University of Medical Sciences

Hedayat Abbastabar

Tehran University of Medical Sciences

Foad Abd-Allah

McGill University

Jemal Abdela

School of Pharmacy

Ahmed Abdelalim

Cairo University

Ibrahim Abdollahpour

Cairo University

Rizwan Suliankatchi Abdulkader

Manonmaniam Sundaranar University

Molla Abebe

Armauer Hansen Research Institute

Zegeye Abebe

Human Nutrition Department

Semaw F. Abera

University of Gondar

Olifan Zewdie Abil

Wollega University

Haftom Niguse Abraha

Clinical Pharmacy Unit

Aklilu Roba Abrham

Haramaya University

Laith J. Abu-Raddad

Weill Cornell Medicine-Qatar

Niveen M.E. Abu-Rmeileh

Birzeit University

Manfred Mario Kokou Accrombessi

Depártment of Epidemiology

Dilaram Acharya

Dongguk University

Pawan Acharya

Nepal Development Society

Abdu A Adamu

Duke University

Akilew Awoke Adane

Institute Public of Health

Oladimeji M. Adebayo

University College Hospital

Rufus Adesoji Adedoyin

Obafemi Awolowo University

Victor Adekanmbi

Cardiff University

Zanfina Ademi

School of Public Health and Preventive Medicine

Olatunji Adetokunboh

Duke University

Mina G. Adib

Monash University

Amha Admasie

Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University

Jose C. Adsuar

Wolaita Sodo University

Kossivi Agbelenko Afanvi

University of Lomé

Mohsen Afarideh

Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Center

Gina Agarwal

McMaster University

Anju Aggarwal

Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology

Sargis Aghasi Aghayan

McMaster University

Anurag Agrawal

Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology

Sutapa Agrawal

Public Health Foundation of India

Alireza Ahmadi

Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences

Mehdi Ahmadi

Environmental Technologies Research Center

Hamid Ahmadieh

Ahvaz, Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences

Muktar Beshir Ahmed

Wuhan University

Amani Nidhal Aichour

Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences

Ibtihel Aichour

Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences

Miloud Taki Eddine Aichour

High National School of Veterinary Medicine

Mohammad Esmaeil Akbari

Federal Teaching Hospital

Tomi F. Akinyemiju

University of Kentucky

Nadia Akseer

Hospital for Sick Children

Ziyad Al-Aly

University of Toronto

Ayman Al-Eyadhy

Department of Veterans Affairs

Hesham M. Al-Mekhlafi

Medical Research Center

Fares Alahdab

Mayo Clinic

Khurshid Alam

School of Global Health

Samiah Alam

University of Western Australia

Tahiya Alam

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation

Alaa Alashi

Dalhousie University

Seyed Moayed Alavian

Baqiyatallah Research Center for Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases

Kefyalew Addis Alene

Institute Public of Health

Komal Ali

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation

Syed Mustafa Ali

Australian National University

Mehran Alijanzadeh

Qazvin University of Medical Sciences

Reza Alizadeh-Navaei

Cancer Research Center

Syed M. Aljunid

University of Kuwait

Ala'a Alkerwi

Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia

François Alla

Institute Public of Health

Ubai Alsharif

Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin

Khalid Altirkawi

King Saud University

Nelson Alvis-Guzman

Université de Bordeaux

Azmeraw T. Amare

Sansom Institute

Walid Ammar

Australia Bahir Dar University

Nahla Anber

American University of Beirut

Jason A. Anderson

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation

Catalina Liliana Andrei

Carol Davila University of Medicine and Pharmacy

Sofia Androudi

University of Thessaly

Megbaru Debalkie Animut

Arba Minch University

Mina Anjomshoa

Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences

Mustafa Geleto Ansha

Debre Berhan University

Josep M. Antó

Universitat de Barcelona

Carl Abelardo T. Antonio

University of the Philippines Manila

Palwasha Anwari

Hong Kong Polytechnic University

Lambert Tetteh Appiah

Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital

Seth Christopher Yaw Appiah

Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology

Jalal Arabloo

Health Management and Economics Research Center

Olatunde Aremu

Birmingham City University

Johan Ärnlöv

Högskolan i Dalarna

Al Artaman

University of Manitoba

Krishna Kumar Aryal

Abt Inc. Nepal

Hamid Asayesh

School of Paramedical

Zerihun Ataro

Haramaya University

Marcel Ausloos

School of Business

Euripide Frinel G. Arthur Avokpaho

Bénin Clinical Research Institute

Ashish Awasthi

Public Health Foundation of India

Beatriz Paulina Ayala Quintanilla

Judith Lumley Centre

Rakesh Ayer

University of Tokyo

Tambe Betrand Ayuk

University of Tokyo

Peter S. Azzopardi

Wardliparingga Aboriginal Research Unit

Arefeh Babazadeh

Center for Infectious Diseases Research

Hamid Badali

Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences

Alaa Badawi

University of Toronto

Kalpana Balakrishnan

Canada Department of Environmental Health Engineering

Ayele Geleto Bali

School of Public Health

Kylie Ball

Institute for Physical Activity and Nutrition

Shoshana H. Ballew

Deakin University

Maciej Banach

Johns Hopkins University

Joseph Adel Mattar Banoub

Alexandria University

Aleksandra Barac

Clinic for Infectious and Tropical Diseases

Suzanne L. Barker-Collo

Univerzitet u Beogradu

Till Bärnighausen

University of Auckland

Lope H. Barrero

School of Engineering

Sanjay Basu

Technische Universität München

Bernhard T. Baune

Stanford University

Shahrzad Bazargan-Hejazi

Charles R Drew University of Medicine and Science

Neeraj Bedi

Jazan University

Ettore Beghi

University for Health Sciences

Masoud Behzadifar

Health Management and Economics Research Center

Meysam Behzadifar

Lorestan University of Medical Sciences

Yannick Béjot

Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Dijon

Bayu Begashaw Bekele

Institute Public of Health

Eyasu Tamru Bekru

College of Health Science and Medicine

Ezra Belay

Mekelle University

Yihalem Abebe Belay

Osaka International Cancer Institute

Michelle L. Bell

School of Forestry and Environmental Studies

Aminu K. Bello

Yale University

Derrick A. Bennett

Nuffield Department of Population Health

Isabela M. Bensenor

Central Research Institute of Cytology and Genetics

Gilles Bergeron

Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP)

Adugnaw Berhane

Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences

Eduardo Bernabe

Dental Institute

Robert S. Bernstein

Emory University

Mircea Beuran

Emergency Hospital of Bucharest

Tina Beyranvand

Tehran

Neeraj Bhala

Queen Elizabeth Hospital Birmingham

Ashish Bhalla

Federal Research Institute for Health Organization and Informatics of Ministry of Health (FRIHOI)

Suraj Bhattarai

London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine

Zulfiqar A. Bhutta

Hospital for Sick Children University of Toronto

Belete Biadgo

University of Gondar

Ali Bijani

Aga Khan University

Boris Bikbov

Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri

Ver Bilano

Epidemiology and Biostatistics

Nigus Bililign

Imperial College London

Muhammad Shahdaat Bin Sayeed

National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health

Donal Bisanzio

Global Health Division

Tuhin Biswas

A T Still University

Tone Bjorge

Universitetet i Bergen

Brigette F Blacker

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation

Archie Bleyer

Oregon Health and Science University

Rohan Borschmann

University of Texas

Ibrahim R. Bou-Orm

Ministry of Public Health

Soufiane Boufous

University of New South Wales (UNSW)

Rupert Bourne

University of New South Wales (UNSW)

Oliver Jerome Brady

Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research

Michael Brauer

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation

Alexandra Brazinova

Univerzita Komenskeho v Bratislave

Nicholas J.K. Breitborde

Max Hospital

Hermann Brenner

Ohio State University

Andrey Nikolaevich Briko

Health Technology Assessment Inc

Gabrielle Britton

Neuroscience Department

Traolach S. Brugha

University Of Leicester

Rachelle Buchbinder

Monash University

Richard T Burnett

Public Health Agency of Canada

Reinhard Busse

Institute Public of Health

Zahid A. Butt

School of Population and Public Health

Leah E Cahill

University of Western Australia

Lucero Cahuana-Hurtado

Center for Health Systems Research

Ismael Ricardo Campos-Nonato

National Institute of Public Health

Rosario Cárdenas

Metropolitan Autonomous University

Giulia Carreras

Prevention and Clinical Network

Juan Jesus Carrero

Karolinska Institutet

Felix Carvalho

University of Technology Sydney

Carlos A. Castañeda-Orjuela

Universidade do Porto

Jacqueline Castillo Rivas

National University of Colombia

Franz Castro

Gorgas Memorial Institute for Health Studies

Ferrán Catalá-López

Instituto de Salud Carlos III

Kate Causey

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation

Kelly Cercy

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation

Ester Cerin

Mary Mackillop Institute for Health Research

Yazan Chaiah

Alfaisal University

Hsing-Yi Chang

National Health Research Institutes

Jung-Chen Chang

College of Medicine

Kai-Lan Chang

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

Fiona J Charlson

Queensland Centre for Mental Health Research

Aparajita Chattopadhyay

International Institute for Population Sciences

Vijay Kumar Chattu

Faculty of Medical Sciences

Miao Li Chee

Ching-Yu Cheng

Ocular Epidemiology Research Group

Adrienne Chew

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation

Peggy Pei-Chia Chiang

Gold Coast Health

Odgerel Chimed-Ochir

University of Occupational and Environmental Health

Ken Lee Chin

Monash University

Abdulaal Chitheer

Ministry of Health

Jee-Young J. Choi

Biochemistry

Rajiv Chowdhury

University of Cambridge

Hanne Christensen

Institute of Clinical Medicine and Bispebjerg Hospital

Devasahayam Jesudas Christopher

Köpenhamns universitet

Sheng-Chia Chung

University College London (UCL)

Flavia M Cicuttini

School of Public Health and Preventive Medicine

Massimo Cirillo

Universita degli Studi di Salerno

Aaron J. Cohen

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation

Daniel Collado-Mateo

University of Extremadura

Cyrus Cooper

Autonomous University of Chile

O.R. Cooper

University of Colorado at Boulder

Josef Coresh

Bloomberg School of Public Health

Leslie Cornaby

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation

Paolo Angelo Cortesi

Universita' degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca

Monica Cortinovis

Arizona State University

Megan Costa

Arizona State University

Ewerton Cousin

Postgraduate Program in Epidemiology

Michael H. Criqui

Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS)

Elizabeth A. Cromwell

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation

David K Cundiff

University of California

Alemneh Kabeta Daba

College of Health Science and Medicine

Berihun Assefa Dachew

Institute Public of Health

Abel Fekadu Dadi

Institute Public of Health

Albertino Antonio Moura Damasceno

Universidade Eduardo Mondlane

Lalit Dandona

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation

Rakhi Dandona

Public Health Foundation of India

Sarah C Darby

Nuffield Department of Population Health

Paul I Dargan

Faculty of Life Sciences and Medicine

Ahmad Daryani

Toxoplasmosis Research Center

Rajat Das Gupta

Guy's and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust

José Das Neves

Imperial College London

Tamirat Tesfaye Dasa

School of Nursing and Midwifery

Aditya Prasad Dash

BRAC University

Dragos Virgil Davitoiu

Kazakh National Medical University

Kairat Davletov

Kazakh National Medical University

Vanessa De La Cruz-Góngora

Center for Evaluation and Surveys Research

Fernando Pio De La Hoz

Asbestos Diseases Research Institute

Diego De Leo

Australian Institute for Suicide Research and Prevention

Jan-Walter De Neve

University of Auckland

Louisa Degenhardt

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation

Selina Deiparine

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation

Robert P. Dellavalle

Griffith University

Gebre Demoz

Addis Ababa University

Edgar Denova-Gutiérrez

Center for Nutrition and Health Research

Kebede Deribe

Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences

Nikolaos Dervenis

Aintree University Hospital National Health Service Foundation Trust

Aniruddha Deshpande

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation

Don C. Des Jarlais

Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai

Getenet Ayalew Dessie

University of Peradeniya

Gabrielle Aline Deveber

Centre for Global Child Health

Subhojit Dey

Disha Foundation

Samath Dhamminda Dharmaratne

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation

Meghnath Dhimal

Health Research Section

Mesfin Tadese Dinberu

Debre Berhan University

Eric L Ding

Harvard University

Helen Derara Diro

College of Health and Medical Sciences

Shirin Djalalinia

University of Washington

Huyen Phuc Do

Duy Tan University

Klara Dokova

Medical University of Varna

David Teye Doku

University of Cape Coast Ghana

Kerrie E Doyle

Tampereen Yliopisto

Tim R. Driscoll

The University of Sydney

Manisha Dubey

United Nations World Food Programme

Eleonora Dubljanin

University of Belgrade

Eyasu Ejeta Duken

Jimma University

Bruce Bartholow Duncan

Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS)

Andre R Duraes

Federal University of Bahia

Natalie Ebert

Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin

Hedyeh Ebrahimi

University of Tehran

Soheil Ebrahimpour

Babol University of Medical Sciences

David Edvardsson

Muhammadiyah University of Surakarta

Andem Effiong

University of Newcastle

Anne Elise Eggen

Universitetet i Tromsö

Charbel El Bcheraoui

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation

Ziad El-Khatib

Karolinska Institutet

Iqbal Rf Elyazar

Eijkman Institute for Molecular Biology

Ahmadali Enayati

Foundation University Medical College

Aman Yesuf Endries

St Paul's Hospital Millennium Medical College

Benjamin Er

Ministry of Health

Holly E Erskine

Universita di Bologna

Sharareh Eskandarieh

Tehran University of Medical Sciences

Alireza Esteghamati

Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Center

Kara Estep

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation

Hamed Fakhim

Urmia University of Medical Science

Mahbobeh Faramarzi

Babol University of Medical Sciences

Mohammad Fareed

College of Medicine

Talha A Farid

Imam Muhammad Ibn Saud Islamic University

Carla Sofia Esá Farinha

National Statistical Office

Andrea Farioli

Universita di Bologna

André Faro

Federal University of Sergipe

Maryam S Farvid

Harvard University

Mohammad Hosein Farzaei

Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences

Batool Fatima

Human Development Programme

Kairsten A Fay

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation

Ali Akbar Fazaeli

Social Determinants of Health Research

Valery L. Feigin

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation

Andrea B. Feigl

Universität Heidelberg

Seyed-Mohammad Fereshtehnejad

Montreal Neurological Institute

Eduarda Fernandes

Toxicology Group

João C. Fernandes

Universidade Catolica Portuguesa, Porto

Giannina Ferrara

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation

Alize J Ferrari

Universita di Bologna

Manuela L Ferreira

Institute of Bone and Joint Research

Irina Filip

Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences

Jonas David Finger

Robert Koch Institut

Florian Fischer

Universität Bielefeld

Nataliya Foigt

Academy of Medical Science

Kyle J. Foreman

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation

Takeshi Fukumoto

Cancer Institute

Nancy Fullman

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation

Thomas Fürst

Epidemiology and Public Health

Joao M Furtado

Division of Ophthalmology

Neal D. Futran

University of Washington

Seana Gall

University of Tasmania

Silvano Gallus

Klinikum der Universitat Munchen

Amiran Gamkrelidze

National Centre for Disease Control

Morsaleh Ganji

Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Center

Alberto L Garcia-Basteiro

Debre Berhan University

William M Gardner

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation

Abadi Kahsu Gebre

Mekelle University

Amanuel Tesfay Gebremedhin

Jimma University

Teklu Gebrehiwo Gebremichael

Mayo Clinic

Tilayie Feto Gelano

Haramaya University

Johanna M. Geleijnse

Wageningen University and Research

Yilma Chisha Dea Geramo

Universitat de Valencia

Peter W. Gething

Nuffield Department of Medicine

Kebede Embaye Gezae

Global Health Institute

Reza Ghadimi

Health Research Institute

Keyghobad Ghadiri

Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences

Khalil Ghasemi Falavarjani

Iran University of Science and Technology

Maryam Ghasemi-Kasman

Health Research Institute

Mamata Ghimire

University of Tsukuba

Rakesh Ghosh

Institute for Global Health Sciences

Aloke Gopal Ghoshal

University of California

Simona Giampaoli

Dysmetabolic and Ageing-associated Diseases

Paramjit Singh Gill

Unit of Academic Primary Care

Tiffany K Gill

The University of Warwick

Richard F Gillum

Howard University

Ibrahim Abdelmageed Ginawi

Howard University

Giorgia Giussani

University for Health Sciences

Elena V Gnedovskaya

Research Center of Neurology

William W. Godwin

Universitat de Barcelona

Srinivas Goli

International Institute for Population Sciences

Hector Gómez-Dantés

Center for Health Systems Research

Philimon N. Gona

University of Massachusetts Boston

Sameer Vali Gopalani

University of Oklahoma

Alessandra Carvalho Goulart

University Hospital

Ayman Grada

Nanyang Technological University

Morgan E Grams

Johns Hopkins University

Giuseppe Grosso

Boston University

Harish Chander Gugnani

Jackson State University

Yuming Guo

School of Public Health and Preventive Medicine

Rahul Gupta

West Virginia Bureau for Public Health

Rajeev Gupta

Rajasthan University of Health Sciences

Tanush Gupta

Montefiore Medical Center

Reyna Alma Gutiérrez

Ramón de la Fuente Muniz National Institute of Psychiatry

Daniela S Gutiérrez-Torres

Juanita A. Haagsma

Erasmus University Medical Center

Tesfa Dejenie Habtewold

University of Kinshasa

Vladimir Hachinski

Rijksuniversiteit Groningen

Nima Hafezi-Nejad

School of Medicine

Tekleberhan B Hagos

Anatomy Unit

Tewodros Tesfa Hailegiyorgis

Haramaya University

Gessessew Bugssa Hailu

Biomedical Sciences Division

Arvin Haj-Mirzaian

Tehran University of Medical Sciences

Arya Haj-Mirzaian

Tehran University of Medical Sciences

Randah Ribhi Hamadeh

Arabian Gulf University

Samer Hamidi

Hamdan Bin Mohammed Smart University

Alexis J Handal

University of New Mexico

Graeme J. Hankey

University of Virginia

Yuantao Hao

Sun Yat-sen Global Health Institute

Hilda L. Harb

Ministry of Public Health

Sivadasanpillai Harikrishnan

Sun Yat-Sen University

Josep Maria Haro

Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology

Hadi Hassankhani

Tabriz University of Medical Sciences

Hamid Yimam Hassen

Public Health Department

Rasmus Havmoeller

Karolinska universitetssjukhuset

Caitlin Hawley

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation

Simon I. Hay

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation

Akbar Hedayatizadeh-Omran

Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences

Behzad Heibati

Air Pollution Research Center

Behnam Heidari

Tehran University of Medical Sciences

Mohsen Heidari

Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences

Delia Hendrie

Curtin University

Andualem Henok

Mizan Tepi University

Ileana Heredia-Pi

Center for Health Systems Research

Claudiu Herteliu

Academia de Studii Economice din București

Fatemeh Heydarpour

Faculty of Nutrition and Food Sciences

Sousan Heydarpour

Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences

Desalegn Tsegaw Hibstu

Hawassa University

Tarig B Higazi

Ohio University

Esayas Haregot Hilawe

Tigray Health Research Institute

Hans W. Hoek

UKK Institute for Health Promotion Research

Howard J Hoffman

National Institute on Deafness and other Communication Disorders

Michael K Hole

The University of Texas at Austin

Enayatollah Homaie Rad

School of Health

Praveen Hoogar

Guilan University of Medical Sciences

H. Dean Hosgood

Montefiore Medical Center

Seyed Mostafa Hosseini

Tehran University of Medical Sciences

Mehdi Hosseinzadeh

University of Human Development

Mihaela Hostiuc

Emergency Hospital of Bucharest

Sorin Hostiuc

Universitatea de Medicina si Farmacie Victor Babes din Timisoara

Damian G. Hoy

The University of Sydney

Mohamed Hsairi

Medicine School of Tunis

Thomas Hsiao

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation

Guoqing Hu

Central South University

Howard Hu

John J. Huang

Yale University

Mamusha Aman Hussen

Chantal K Huynh

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation

Kim Moesgaard Iburg

University Institute Egas Moniz

Nayu Ikeda

Aarhus Universitet

Olayinka S. Ilesanmi

University of Liberia

Usman Iqbal

University of Liberia

Seyed Sina Naghibi Irvani

Non-communicable Diseases Research Center

Caleb M.S. Irvine

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation

Sheikh Mohammed Shariful Islam

The University of Sydney

Farhad Islami

Taipei Medical University

Maria D Jackson

Kathryn H. Jacobsen

George Mason University

Leila Jahangiry

School of Public Health

Nader Jahanmehr

Safety Promotion and Injury Prevention Research Center

Sudhir Kumar Jain

National Centre for Disease Control Delhi

Mihajlo Jakovljevic

University of Kragujevac

Spencer L. James

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation

Simerjot K Jassal

International Medical University

Achala Upendra Jayatilleke

Faculty of Graduate Studies

Panniyammakal Jeemon

Achutha Menon Centre for Health Science Studies

Ravi Prakash Jha

University of Colombo

Vivekanand Jha

University of Oxford

John S Ji

Environmental Research Center

Jost B. Jonas

National Center for Disease Control and Public Health

Jitendra Jonnagaddala

School of Community Medicine

Zahra Jorjoran Shushtari

University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences

Ankur Joshi

Centre for Community Medicine

Jacek Józwiak

Politechnika Częstochowska

Mikk Jürisson

Tartu Ülikool

Zubair Kabir

University College Cork

Amaha Kahsay

Mekelle University

Rizwan Kalani

Tanuj Kanchan

Surya Kant

K G Medical University

Chittaranjan Kar

Srirama Chandra Bhanja Medical College and Hospital

Manoochehr Karami

Northwestern University

Behzad Karami Matin

Faculty of Public Health

André Karch

Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research

Corine Kakizi Karema

Narges Karimi

University of California

Seyed M. Karimi

University of Washington Tacoma

Amir Kasaeian

Hematologic Malignancies Research Center

Dessalegn Haile Kassa

Getachew Mullu Kassa

College of Health Sciences

Tesfaye Dessale Kassa

Clinical Pharmacy Unit

Nicholas J Kassebaum

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation

Srinivasa Vittal Katikireddi

University of Glasgow

Anil Kaul

Oklahoma State University System

Norito Kawakami

Zhila Kazemi

Ministry of Health and Medical Education

Ali Kazemi Karyani

Faculty of Public Health

Adane Teshome Kefale

Pharmacy Department

Peter Njenga Keiyoro

Grant Rodgers Kemp

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation

Andre Pascal Kengne

Non-communicable Diseases Research Unit

Andre Keren

University of Cape Town

Chandrasekharan Nair Kesavachandran

Indian Institute of Toxicology Research

Yousef Saleh Khader

Public Health and Family Medicine

Behzad Khafaei

Omidiyeh Branch

Morteza Abdullatif Khafaie

Milad General Hospital

Alireza Khajavi

Cardiovascular Medicine

Nauman Khalid

University of Management and Technology

Ibrahim A. Khalil

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation

Gulfaraz Khan

John H Stroger

Muhammad Shahzeb Khan

John H Stroger

Muhammad Ali Khan

University of Alabama at Birmingham

Young-Ho Khang

Institute of Health Policy and Management

Mona M. Khater

Mohammad Khazaei

Habibolah Khazaie

Gomal University

Abdullah Tawfih Abdullah Khoja

Ardeshir Khosravi

Ministry of Health and Medical Education

Mohammad Hossein Khosravi

Department of Epidemiology

Aliasghar Ahmad Kiadaliri

Clinical Epidemiology Unit

Daniel Ngari Kiirithio

Lunds universitet

Cho-Il Kim

Korea Health Industry Development Institute

Daniel Kim

Northeastern University

Young-Eun Kim

Yun Jin Kim

Xiamen University Malaysia

Ruth W. Kimokoti

Simmons College

Yohannes Kinfu

Murdoch Childrens Research Hospital

Adnan Kisa

Katarzyna Kissimova-Skarbek

Mika Kivimäki

Luke D Knibbs

Universita di Bologna

Ann Kristin Skrindo Knudsen

Sonali Kochhar

Yoshihiro Kokubo

Tufa Kolola

Jacek A. Kopec

University of British Columbia (UBC)

Soewarta Kosen

Parvaiz A. Koul

Sher-i-Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences

Ai Koyanagi

Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology

Michael Kravchenko

Research Center of Neurology

Kewal Krishan

Panjab University

Kristopher J. Krohn

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation

Hans Kromhout

Universiteit Utrecht

Barthelemy Kuate Defo

Burcu Kucuk Bicer

Université de Montréal

G. Anil Kumar

Public Health Foundation of India

Manasi Kumar

Igor Kuzin

University of Washington

Hmwe Hmwe Kyu

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation

Carl Lachat

Universiteit Gent

Deepesh Pravinkumar Lad

Federal Research Institute for Health Organization and Informatics of Ministry of Health (FRIHOI)

Sheetal D Lad

Nutritional Epidemiology Research Team

Alessandra Lafranconi

Universita' degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca

Ratilal Lalloo

School of Dentistry

Tea Lallukka

Faculty of Health Sciences

Faris Hasan Lami

Academy of Medical Science

Justin J. Lang

Health Promotion and Chronic Disease Prevention Branch

Van C. Lansingh

University of West Indies

Samantha Leigh Larson

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation

Arman Latifi

Universidade de Lisboa

Jeffrey Victor Lazarus

Universitat de Barcelona

Paul H Lee

School of Nursing

James Leigh

Asbestos Diseases Research Institute

Mostafa Leili

Cheru Tesema Leshargie

Osaka International Cancer Institute

Janni Leung

Miriam Levi

Maragheh University of Medical Sciences

Sonia Lewycka

Centre for Tropical Medicine and Global Health

Shanshan Li

School of Public Health and Preventive Medicine

Yichong Li

Shenzhen Sun Yat-sen Cardiovascular Hospital

Juan Liang

National Office for Maternal and Child Health Surveillance

Xiaofeng Liang

Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention

Yu Liao

Misgan Legesse Liben

Samara University

Lee-Ling Lim

University of Malaya

Shai Linn

University of Haifa

Shiwei Liu

Centre for Chronic Disease Control

Rakesh Lodha

Institute for Futures Studies in Health

Giancarlo Logroscino

University of Bari Aldo Moro

Alan D. Lopez

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation

Stefan Lorkowski

Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena

Paulo A. Lotufo

Medical Retina

Rafael Lozano

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation

Timothy C.D. Lucas

Big Data Institute

Raimundas Lunevicius

Stefan Ma

Epidemiology and Disease Control

Erlyn Rachelle King Macarayan

Development and Communication Studies

Ísis Eloah Machado

Universiti Kebangsaan Singapura (NUS)

Fabiana Madotto

Universita' degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca

Hue Thi Mai

Duy Tan University

Marek Majdan

Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais

Reza Majdzadeh

Knowledge Utilization Research Center

Azeem Majeed

Reza Malekzadeh

Digestive Diseases Research Institute

Deborah Carvalho Malta

Abdullah A Mamun

Institute for Social Science Research

Ana-Laura Manda

Carol Davila University of Medicine and Pharmacy

Helena Manguerra

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation

Mohammad Ali Mansournia

Lorenzo G. Mantovani

Universita' degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca

Joemer C Maravilla

Institute for Social Science Research

Wagner Marcenes

Division of Patient and Population

Ashley Marks

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation

Randall V Martin

Sheila Cristina Ouriques Martins

Francisco Rogerlândio Martins-Melo

Campus Caucaia

Winfried März

Medical Clinic V

Melvin B Marzan

Graduate School

Benjamin Ballard Massenburg

Division of Plastic Surgery

Manu Raj Mathur

Non Communicable Diseases

Prashant Mathur

National Centre for Disease Informatics and Research

Kunihiro Matsushita

Pallab K Maulik

Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine

Mohsen Mazidi

Chalmers, Biologi och bioteknik, Livsmedelsvetenskap

Colm McAlinden

Hywel Dda University Health Board

John J. McGrath

Queensland Brain Institute

Martin McKee

Ravi Mehrotra

National Institute of Cancer Prevention and Research

Kala M. Mehta

Varshil Mehta

Sevenhills Hospital

Toni Meier

Innovation Office

Fantahun Ayenew Mekonnen

Yohannes A Melaku

Institute Public of Health

Addisu Melese

Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg

Mulugeta Melku

Institute Public of Health

Peter Memiah

University of West Florida

Ziad A. Memish

Alfaisal University

Walter Mendoza

Desalegn Tadese Mengistu

Tsinghua University

George A. Mensah

Center for Translation Research and Implementation Science

Gert B M Mensink

Robert Koch Institut

Seid Tiku Mereta

Atte Meretoja

School of Health Sciences

Tuomo J. Meretoja

Helsingin Yliopisto

Tomislav Mestrovic

Helsinki University Central Hospital

Haftay Berhane Mezgebe

Ethiopian Academy of Medical Science

Bartosz Miazgowski

Emergency Department

Tomasz Miazgowski

Anoushka Millear

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation

Ted R. Miller

Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation

Molly Katherine Miller-Petrie

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation

G.K. Mini

Achutha Menon Centre for Health Science Studies

Mojde Mirarefin

Nevada Division of Public and Behavioral Health

Andreea Mirica

Academia de Studii Economice din București

Erkin M. Mirrakhimov

Kyrgyz State Medical Academy

Awoke Misganaw

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation

Habtamu Mitiku

Babak Moazen

University of Auckland

Bahram Mohajer

Non-communicable Diseases Research Center

Karzan Abdulmuhsin Mohammad

Salahaddin University

Moslem Mohammadi

Noushin Mohammadifard

Isfahan University of Medical Sciences

Mousa Mohammadnia-Afrouzi

Instituto de Investigación Hospital Universitario de la Princesa (IISP)

Shafiu Mohammed

University of Auckland

Farnam Mohebi

Non-communicable Diseases Research Center

Ali H. Mokdad

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation

Mariam Molokhia

Faculty of Life Sciences and Medicine

Fatemeh Momeniha

Tehran

Lorenzo Monasta

Ahmadu Bello University

Yoshan Moodley

University of KwaZulu-Natal

Ghobad Moradi

Maziar Moradi-Lakeh

Preventive Medicine and Public Health Research Center

Mehdi Moradinazar

Research Center for Environmental Determinants of Health

Paula Moraga

Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences

Lidia Morawska

International Laboratory for Air Quality and Health

Joana Morgado-Da-costa

Queensland University of Technology (QUT)

Shane D. Morrison

Marilita M Moschos

University of Athens

Simin Mouodi

Babol University of Medical Sciences

Seyyed Meysam Mousavi

Dariush Mozaffarian

Tufts University

Kalayu Brhane Mruts

Achenef Asmamaw Muche

Institute Public of Health

Kindie Fentahun Muchie

Institute Public of Health

Ulrich O. Mueller

Federal Institute for Population Research

Oumer Sada S. Muhammed

Satinath Mukhopadhyay

Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism

Kate Muller

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation

Kamarul Imran Musa

University of Science Malaysia

Ghulam Mustafa

Nishtar Medical University

Ashraf F. Nabhan

Mohsen Naghavi

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation

Aliya Naheed

Ain Shams University

Azin Nahvijou

Cancer Research Center

Gurudatta A. Naik

Kyoto University

Nitish Naik

Farid Najafi

Wolkite University

Vinay Nangia

Suraj Eye Institute

Jobert Richie Njingang Nansseu

Bruno Ramos Nascimento

Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais

Bruce Neal

Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine

Nahid Neamati

University of Calgary

Ionut Negoi

Emergency Hospital of Bucharest

Ruxandra Irina Negoi

Anatomy and Embryology Department

Subas Neupane

Middle East Liver Disease Center

Charles R. Newton

Mufti Mehmood Memorial Teaching Hospital

Josephine Wanjiku Ngunjiri

University of Embu

Anh Quynh Nguyen

Health Economics and Finance

Grant Nguyen

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation

Ha Thu Nguyen

Huong Lan Thi Nguyen

Duy Tan University

Huong Thanh Nguyen

Hanoi School of Public Health

Minh Nguyen

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation

Nam Ba Nguyen

Universitat de Valencia

Emma Nichols

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation

Jing Nie

Xi'an Jiaotong University

Dina Nur Anggraini Ningrum

Graduate Institute of Biomedical Informatics

Yirga Legesse Nirayo

Clinical Pharmacy Unit

Nobuo Nishi

International Center for Nutrition and Information

Molly R. Nixon

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation

Marzieh Nojomi

Preventive Medicine and Public Health Research Center

Shuhei Nomura

Ole F. Norheim

Universität Heidelberg

Mehdi Noroozi

University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences

Bo Norrving

Jean Jacques N. Noubiap

South African Medical Research Council

Hamid Reza Nouri

Molecular and Cell Biology Research Center

Malihe Nourollahpour Shiadeh

Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences

Mohammad Reza Nowroozi

Uro-oncology Research Center

Elaine O. Nsoesie

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation

Peter S Nyasulu

Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences

Carla Makhlouf Obermeyer

Center for Research on Population and Health

Christopher M Odell

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation

Richard Ofori-Asenso

Centre of Cardiovascular Research and Education in Therapeutics

Felix Akpojene Ogbo

Western Sydney University

In-Hwan Oh

Kyung Hee University

Olanrewaju Oladimeji

Human Sciences Research Council

Andrew Toyin Olagunju

University of Adelaide

Tinuke Oluwasefunmi Olagunju

Pedro R. Olivares

Institute of Physical Activity and Health

Helen E. Olsen

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation

Bolajoko Olubukunola Olusanya

Center for Healthy Start Initiative

Jacob Olusegun Olusanya

Center for Healthy Start Initiative

Kanyin Ong

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation

Sok King Ong

NCD Prevention and Control Unit

Eyal Oren

University of Washington

Heather M Orpana

Applied Research Division

Alberto Ortiz

University of Bath

Erika Ota

St Luke's International University

Stanislav S Otstavnov

Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation

Simon Overland

Mayowa Ojo Owolabi

University of Ibadan

P. Mahesh

Jagadguru Sri Shivarathreeswara University

Rosana Pacella

Australian Centre for Health Services Innovation

Abhijit P Pakhare

Centre for Community Medicine

Amir H Pakpour

Obstetrics and Gynecology

Adrian Pana

Academia de Studii Economice din București

Songhomitra Panda-Jonas

Augenpraxis Jonas

Eun-Kee Park

College of Medicine

Charles D H Parry

Hadi Parsian

University of Calgary

Shanti Patel

Maimonides Medical Center

Sanghamitra Pati

Regional Medical Research Centre

Snehal T. Patil

Deemed University

Ajay Patle

George C. Patton

Population Health Group

Deepak Paudel

Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology

Katherine R Paulson

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation

Wayra Citlali Paz Ballesteros

Neil Pearce

Alexandre Pereira

David M. Pereira

Toxicology Group

Norberto Perico

Konrad Pesudovs

Glenelg

Max Petzold

Göteborgs universitet

Hai Quang Pham

Duy Tan University

Michael Robert Phillips

Shanghai Jiao Tong University

Julian David Pillay

Durban University of Technology

Michael A. Piradov

Research Center of Neurology

Meghdad Pirsaheb

Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences

Tobias Pischon

Max Delbruck Center for Molecular Medicine

Farhad Pishgar

Non-communicable Diseases Research Center

Oleguer Plana-Ripoll

National Centre for Register-Based Research

Dietrich Plass

Suzanne Polinder

Erasmus University Medical Center

Kevan R Polkinghorne

Maarten J. Postma

Rijksuniversiteit Groningen

Richie Poulton

University of Otago

Akram Pourshams

Digestive Diseases Research Institute

Hossein Poustchi

Digestive Diseases Research Institute

Dorairaj Prabhakaran

Public Health Foundation of India

Swayam Prakash

Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences

Narayan Prasad

Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences

Caroline Purcell

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation

Manorama B Purwar

Government Medical College

Mostafa Qorbani

Alborz University of Medical Sciences

Amir Radfar

A T Still University

Anwar Rafay

Contech School of Public Health

Alireza Rafiei

Molecular and Cell Biology Research Center

Fakher Rahim

Thalassemia and Hemoglobinopathy Research Center

Zohreh Rahimi

Afarin Rahimi-Movaghar

Iranian National Center for Addiction Studies (INCAS)

Vafa Rahimi-Movaghar

Sina Trauma and Surgery Research Center

Mahfuzar Rahman

Austin Clinical School of Nursing

Mohammad Hifz Ur Rahman

Muhammad Aziz Rahman

Research and Evaluation Division

Rajesh Kumar Rai

Society for Health and Demographic Surveillance

Fatemeh Rajati

Sasa Rajsic

Medizinische Universität Innsbruck

Sree Bhushan Raju

Nizam's Institute of Medical Sciences

Usha Ram

Chhabi Lal Ranabhat

Yonsei University

Prabhat Ranjan

Nanjing University

Goura Kishor Rath

David Laith Rawaf

WHO Collaborating Centre for Public Health Education and Training

Salman Rawaf

K Srinath Reddy

Public Health Foundation of India

Colin D Rehm

Jürgen Rehm

Robert C. Reiner

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation

Marissa B. Reitsma

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation

Giuseppe Remuzzi

Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri

Andre M.N. Renzaho

School of Social Sciences and Psychology

Serge Resnikoff

Brien Holden Vision Institute

Luz Myriam Reynales-Shigematsu

Satar Rezaei

Environmental Determinants of Health Research Center

Antonio Luiz P. Ribeiro

Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais

Juan A. Rivera

Kedir Teji Roba

School of Nursing and Midwifery

Sonia Rodríguez-Ramírez

Center for Nutrition and Health Research

Leonardo Roever

Federal University of Uberlândia

Yesenia Román

Luca Ronfani

Ahmadu Bello University

Gholamreza Roshandel

Digestive Diseases Research Institute

Ali Rostami

Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine Research Center

Gregory A. Roth

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation

Dietrich Rothenbacher

Universität Ulm

Ambuj Roy

Enrico Rubagotti

Universidad Regional Amazónica

Lesley Rushton

Epidemiology and Biostatistics

Charumathi Sabanayagam

Ocular Epidemiology Research Group

Perminder S. Sachdev

School of Psychiatry

Basema Saddik

University of Sharjah

Ehsan Sadeghi

Sahar Saeedi Moghaddam

Non-communicable Diseases Research Center

Hosein Safari

Yahya Safari

Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences

Roya Safari-Faramani

Faculty of Public Health

Mahdi Safdarian

Sina Trauma and Surgery Research Center

Sare Safi

Ophthalmic Research Center

Saeid Safiri

Managerial Epidemiology Research Center

Rajesh Sagar

Raffles Hospital

Amirhossein Sahebkar

Mashhad University of Medical Sciences

Mohammad Ali Sahraian

Neuroscience Institute

Haniye Sadat Sajadi

Iran National Institute of Health Research

Nasir Salam

Al-Imam Mohammad Ibn Saud Islamic University

Payman Salamati

Sina Trauma and Surgery Research Center

Zikria Saleem

Punjab University College of Pharmacy

Yahya Salimi

Wolkite University

Hamideh Salimzadeh

Digestive Diseases Research Institute

Joshua A. Salomon

Center for Health Policy and Center for Primary Care and Outcomes Research

Devashri Digvijay Salvi

Royal Children's Hospital

Inbal Salz

Health and Disability Intelligence Group

Abdallah M. Samy

Juan Ramon Sanabria

Marshall University

Maria Dolores Sanchez-Niño

Jimenez Diaz Foundation University Hospital Institute for Health Research

Tania G Sánchez-Pimienta

National Institute of Public Health

Taren Sanders

Institute for Positive Psychology and Education

Yingying Sang

Deakin University

Damian Santomauro

Universita di Bologna

Itamar S. Santos

Central Research Institute of Cytology and Genetics

Joao Vasco Santos

University of Edinburgh

Milena M Santric Milicevic

Centre School of Public Health and Health Management

Bruno Piassi Sao Jose

Post-Graduate Program in Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine

Mayank Sardana

University of Massachusetts Medical School

Abdur Razzaque Sarker

Health Economics and Financing Research Group

Rodrigo Sarmiento-Suárez

Faculty of Medicine

Nizal Sarrafzadegan

School of Population and Public Health

Benn Sartorius

University of KwaZulu-Natal

Shahabeddin Sarvi

Toxoplasmosis Research Center

Brijesh Sathian

Hamad Medical Corporation

Maheswar Satpathy

Utkal University

Arundhati R. Sawant

University of Alabama at Birmingham

Monika Sawhney

The University of North Carolina at Charlotte

Mete I. Saylan

Mehdi Sayyah

Education Development Center

Elke Schaeffner

Institute Public of Health

Maria Inês Schmidt

Postgraduate Program in Epidemiology

Ione J. C. Schneider

Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina

Ben Schöttker

Ohio State University

Aletta E. Schutte

Unit for Hypertension and Cardiovascular Disease

David C. Schwebel

School of Preventive Oncology

Falk Schwendicke

James G Scott

Universita di Bologna

Soraya Seedat

Mario Sekerija

Sveučilište u Zagrebu

Sadaf G. Sepanlou

Digestive Diseases Research Institute

Marc L Serre

The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

Edson E. Servan-Mori

Center for Health Systems Research

Seyedmojtaba Seyedmousavi

Center of Expertise in Microbiology

Hosein Shabaninejad

Gavin Shaddick

University of Exeter

Azadeh Shafieesabet

Langone Medical Center

Mehdi Shahbazi

Amira A. Shaheen

New York University

Masood Ali Shaikh

Teresa Shamah Levy

Center for Research in Evaluation and Surveys

Mehran Shams-Beyranvand

Non-communicable Diseases Research Center

Mohammadbagher Shamsi

Sports Medicine and Rehabilitation

Heidar Sharafi

Tampereen Yliopisto

Kiomars Sharafi

Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences

Mehdi Sharif

Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences

Mahdi Sharif-Alhoseini

Sina Trauma and Surgery Research Center

Hamid Sharifi

Institute for Futures Studies in Health

Jayendra Sharma

Policy and Planning Division

Meenakshi Sharma

Division of Noncommunicable Diseases

Rajesh Sharma

Delhi Technological University

Jun She

Fudan University

Aziz Sheikh

Division of General Internal Medicine and Primary Care

Peilin Shi

Tufts University

Kenji Shibuya

University of Tokyo

Mekonnen Sisay Shiferaw

School of Pharmacy

Mika Shigematsu

National Institute of Infectious Diseases

Min-Jeong Shin

Korea University

Rahman Shiri

Työterveyslaitos

Reza Shirkoohi

Cancer Research Center

Ivy Shiue

Institute of Medical Epidemiology

Farhad Shokraneh

University of Nottingham

Haitham Shoman

WHO Collaborating Centre for Public Health Education and Training

Mark G. Shrime

Harvard University

Matthew S Shupler

Division of Occupational and Environmental Health

Si Si

School of Public Health and Preventive Medicine

Soraya Siabani

Imam Ali Cardiovascular Research Center

Abla Mehio Sibai

American University of Beirut

Tariq J Siddiqi

Dow University of Health Sciences

Inga Dora Sigfusdottir

Reykjavik University

Rannveig Sigurvinsdottir

Reykjavik University

Diego Augusto Santos Silva

Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina

Joao Pedro Silva

UCIBIO

Dayane Gabriele Alves Silveira

Mimistry of Health Brasilia

Jasvinder A. Singh

Kyoto University

Narinder Pal Singh

Max Hospital

Virendra Singh

Asthma Bhawan

Dhirendra Narain Sinha

King Khalid University Hospital

Eirini Skiadaresi

Hywel Dda University Health Board

Vegard Skirbekk

Norwegian Institute of Public Health

David L Smith

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation

Mari Smith

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation

Badr H.A. Sobaih

Hospital Universitario Doctor Peset

Soheila Sobhani

Tehran University of Medical Sciences

Ranjani Somayaji

University of Calgary

Moslem Soofi

Environmental Determinants of Health Research Center

Reed J.D. Sorensen

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation

Joan B. Soriano

Instituto de Investigación Hospital Universitario de la Princesa (IISP)

Ireneous N. Soyiri

University of Edinburgh

Angela Spinelli

National Centre for Disease Prevention and Health Promotion

Luciano A. Sposato

Clinical Neurological Sciences

Chandrashekhar T. Sreeramareddy

International Medical University

Vinay Srinivasan

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation

Vladimir I Starodubov

Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation

Nadine Steckling

University for Health Sciences

Dan J. Stein

South African Medical Research Council

Murray B Stein

Velez Sarsfield Hospital

Goran Stevanovic

Clinic for Infectious and Tropical Diseases

Leo Stockfelt

Göteborgs universitet

Mark Andrew Stokes

Universidade de Brasilia

Lela Sturua

National Center for Disease Control and Public Health

Michelle L Subart

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation

Agus Sudaryanto

Muhammadiyah University of Surakarta

Muawiyyah Babale Sufiyan

National Institute of Infectious Diseases

Gerhard Sulo

Norwegian Institute of Public Health

Bruno F. Sunguya

Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences

Patrick J. Sur

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation

Bryan L. Sykes

University of California at Irvine (UCI)

Cassandra E I Szoeke

School of Health Sciences

Rafael Tabarés-Seisdedos

Milad General Hospital

Takahiro Tabuchi

Osaka International Cancer Institute

Santosh Kumar Tadakamadla

Menzies Health Institute Queensland

Ken Takahashi

Asbestos Diseases Research Institute

Nikhil Tandon

All India Institute of Medical Sciences

Segen Gebremeskel Tassew

Mekelle University

Mohammad Tavakkoli

New York Medical College

Nuno Taveira

University Institute Egas Moniz

Arash Tehrani-Banihashemi

Preventive Medicine and Public Health Research Center

Tigist Gashaw Tekalign

Haramaya University

Shishay Wahdey Tekelemedhin

Mekelle University

Merhawi Gebremedhin Tekle

School of Public Health

Habtamu Temesgen

Debre Markos University

Mohamad-Hani Temsah

Hospital Universitario Doctor Peset

Omar Temsah

Alfaisal University

Abdullah Sulieman Terkawi

University of Virginia

Belay Tessema

University of Gondar

Mebrahtu Teweldemedhin

Aksum University

Kavumpurathu Raman Thankappan

Achutha Menon Centre for Health Science Studies

Andrew Theis

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation

Sathish Thirunavukkarasu

Nanyang Technological University

Hannah J Thomas

Centre for Clinical Research

Matthew Lloyd Thomas

University of Bath

Nihal Thomas

Christian Medical College

George D Thurston

Institute of Environmental Medicine

Binyam Tilahun

Institute Public of Health

Taavi Tillmann

University College London (UCL)

Quyen G. To

School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences

Myriam Tobollik

German Federal Environment Agency

Marcello Tonelli

University of Calgary

Roman Topor-Madry

Agency for Health Technology Assessment and Tariff System

Anna Torre

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation

Miguel Tortajada-Girbés

VA St Louis Health Care System

Mathilde Touvier

Nutritional Epidemiology Research Team

Marcos Roberto Tovani Palone

Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP)

Jeffrey A Towbin

Military Medical University

Bach Xuan Tran

Hanoi Medical University

Khanh Bao Tran

Molecular Medicine and Pathology

Thomas Truelsen

University of California at Irvine (UCI)

Nu Thi Truong

Duy Tan University

Afewerki Gebremeskel Tsadik

Mekelle University

Lorainne Tudor Car

Syrian Expatriate Medical Association (SEMA)

E Murat Tuzcu

Federal Teaching Hospital

Hayley D. Tymeson

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation

Stefanos Tyrovolas

Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology

Kingsley Nnanna Ukwaja

Federal Teaching Hospital

Irfan Ullah

Gomal University

Rachel Updike

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation

Muhammad Shariq Usman

Dow University of Health Sciences

Olalekan A. Uthman

Division of Health Sciences

Muthiah Vaduganathan

Heart and Vascular Center

Afsane Vaezi

Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences

Pascual Rubén Valdez

Ciudad De Buenos Aires

Aaron Van Donkelaar

Dalhousie University

Elena Varavikova

Central Research Institute of Cytology and Genetics

Santosh Varughese

Christian Medical College

Tommi Vasankari

UKK Institute for Health Promotion Research

Vidhya Venkateswaran

King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals

Narayanaswamy Venketasubramanian

Raffles Hospital

Santos Villafaina

Wolaita Sodo University

Francesco S Violante

Universita di Bologna

Sergey K. Vladimirov

Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University

Vasiliy Victorovich Vlassov

National Research University Higher School of Economics

Stein Emil Vollset

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation

Theo Vos

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation

Kia Vosoughi

Preventive Medicine and Public Health Research Center

Giang Thu Vu

Center of Excellence in Behavioral Medicine

Isidora S Vujcic

Faculty of Medicine Institute of Epidemiology

Fasil Wagnew

Debre Markos University

Yasir Waheed

Foundation University Medical College

Stephen G Waller

Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences

Judd L. Walson

University of Washington

Yafeng Wang

Ciudad De Buenos Aires

Yanping Wang

Fudan University

Yuan-Pang Wang

National Center of Birth Defects Monitoring of China

Elisabete Weiderpass

International Agency for Research on Cancer

Robert G. Weintraub

Murdoch Childrens Research Hospital

Fitsum Weldegebreal

Haramaya University

Andrea Werdecker

Center for Population and Health

Adhena Ayaliew Werkneh

IHE Delft Institute for Water Education

J Jason West

The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

Ronny Westerman

Competence Center Mortality-Follow-Up

Harvey A. Whiteford

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation

Justyna Widecka

Zdroje Hospital

Tissa Wijeratne

Andrea Sylvia Winkler

Technische Universität München

Alison B Wiyeh

Cochrane South Africa

Charles Shey Wiysonge

Duke University

Charles D.A. Wolfe

School of Population Health and Environmental Sciences

Tien Yin Wong

Medical Retina

Shouling Wu

Kailuan General Hospital

Denis Xavier

St John's National Academy of Health Sciences

Gelin Xu

Nanjing University

Simon Yadgir

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation

Ali Yadollahpour

Medical Physics Department

Seyed Hossein Yahyazadeh Jabbari

Milad General Hospital

Tomohide Yamada

University of Tokyo

Lijing L. Yan

Global Health Research Center

Yuichiro Yano

Northwestern University

Yasin Jemal Yasin

King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals

Alex Yeshaneh

Wolkite University

Paul Yip

Centre for Suicide Research and Prevention

Engida Yisma

School of Allied Health Sciences

Naohiro Yonemoto

Kyoto University

Seok-Jun Yoon

Korea University

Marcel Yotebieng

College of Public Health

Mustafa Z. Younis

Tsinghua University

Mahmoud Yousefifard

Physiology Research Center

Chuanhua Yu

Wuhan University

Zoubida Zaidi

Wuhan University

Sojib Bin Zaman

Maternal and Child Health Division

Mohammad Zamani

King Khalid University Hospital

Luis Zavala-Arciniega

University of Michigan

Anthony Lin Zhang

Tampereen Yliopisto

Hao Zhang

Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention

Kai Zhang

Human Genetics and Environmental Sciences

Maigeng Zhou

Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention

Stephanie R.M. Zimsen

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation

Sanjay Zodpey

Indian Institute of Public Health

Christopher J. L. Murray

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation

The Lancet

0140-6736 (ISSN) 1474-547X (eISSN)

Vol. 392 10159 1923-1994

Ämneskategorier

Allmänmedicin

Miljömedicin och yrkesmedicin

Folkhälsovetenskap, global hälsa, socialmedicin och epidemiologi

DOI

10.1016/S0140-6736(18)32225-6

PubMed

30496105

Mer information

Senast uppdaterat

2020-05-14