First M87 Event Horizon Telescope Results. V. Physical Origin of the Asymmetric Ring
Artikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift, 2019

The Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) has mapped the central compact radio source of the elliptical galaxy M87 at 1.3 mm with unprecedented angular resolution. Here we consider the physical implications of the asymmetric ring seen in the 2017 EHT data. To this end, we construct a large library of models based on general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (GRMHD) simulations and synthetic images produced by general relativistic ray tracing. We compare the observed visibilities with this library and confirm that the asymmetric ring is consistent with earlier predictions of strong gravitational lensing of synchrotron emission from a hot plasma orbiting near the black hole event horizon. The ring radius and ring asymmetry depend on black hole mass and spin, respectively, and both are therefore expected to be stable when observed in future EHT campaigns. Overall, the observed image is consistent with expectations for the shadow of a spinning Kerr black hole as predicted by general relativity. If the black hole spin and M87's large scale jet are aligned, then the black hole spin vector is pointed away from Earth. Models in our library of non-spinning black holes are inconsistent with the observations as they do not produce sufficiently powerful jets. At the same time, in those models that produce a sufficiently powerful jet, the latter is powered by extraction of black hole spin energy through mechanisms akin to the Blandford-Znajek process. We briefly consider alternatives to a black hole for the central compact object. Analysis of existing EHT polarization data and data taken simultaneously at other wavelengths will soon enable new tests of the GRMHD models, as will future EHT campaigns at 230 and 345 GHz.

black hole physics

galaxies: jets magnetohydrodynamics (MHD)

techniques: high angular resolution

accretion, accretion disks

galaxies: individual (M87)

Författare

Kazunori Akiyama

National Radio Astronomy Observatory

Harvard University

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

Antxon Alberdi

Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)

Walter Alef

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Keiichi Asada

Academia Sinica

Rebecca Azulay

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Universitat de Valencia

Anne-Kathrin Baczko

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

David Ball

University of Arizona

Mislav Balokovic

Harvard University

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

John Barrett

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

Dan Bintley

East Asian Observatory

Lindy Blackburn

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Harvard University

Wilfred Boland

Nederlandse Onderzoekschool voor Astronomie (NOVA)

Katherine L. Bouman

California Institute of Technology (Caltech)

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Harvard University

Geoffrey C. Bower

Academia Sinica

Michael Bremer

Institut de RadioAstronomie Millimetrique (IRAM)

Christiaan D. Brinkerink

Radboud Universiteit

Roger Brissenden

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Harvard University

Silke Britzen

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Avery E. Broderick

University of Waterloo

Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics

Dominique Broguiere

Institut de RadioAstronomie Millimetrique (IRAM)

Thomas Bronzwaer

Radboud Universiteit

Do-Young Byun

University of Science and Technology (UST)

Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute

John E. Carlstrom

University of Chicago

Andrew Chael

Harvard University

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Chi-kwan Chan

University of Arizona

Shami Chatterjee

Cornell University

Koushik Chatterjee

Universiteit Van Amsterdam

Ming-Tang Chen

Academia Sinica

Yongjun Chen

Chinese Academy of Sciences

Ilje Cho

University of Science and Technology (UST)

Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute

Pierre Christian

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

University of Arizona

John Conway

Chalmers, Rymd-, geo- och miljövetenskap, Onsala rymdobservatorium

James M. Cordes

Cornell University

Geoffrey B. Crew

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

Yuzhu Cui

The Graduate University for Advanced Studies (SOKENDAI)

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

Jordy Davelaar

Radboud Universiteit

Mariafelicia De Laurentis

Johann Wolfgang Goethe Universität Frankfurt am Main

Ist Nazl Fis Nucl

Universita degli Studi di Napoli Federico II

Roger Deane

Universiteit van Pretoria

Rhodes University

Jessica Dempsey

East Asian Observatory

Gregory Desvignes

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Jason Dexter

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Sheperd S. Doeleman

Harvard University

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Ralph P. Eatough

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Heino Falcke

Radboud Universiteit

Vincent L. Fish

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

Ed Fomalont

National Radio Astronomy Observatory

Raquel Fraga-Encinas

Radboud Universiteit

Per Friberg

East Asian Observatory

Christian M. Fromm

Johann Wolfgang Goethe Universität Frankfurt am Main

Jose L. Gomez

Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)

Peter Galisonl

Harvard University

National Radio Astronomy Observatory

Charles F. Gammie

University of Illinois

Roberto Garcia

Institut de RadioAstronomie Millimetrique (IRAM)

Olivier Gentaz

Institut de RadioAstronomie Millimetrique (IRAM)

Boris Georgiev

University of Waterloo

Ciriaco Goddi

Radboud Universiteit

Universiteit Leiden

Roman Gold

Johann Wolfgang Goethe Universität Frankfurt am Main

Minfeng Gu

Chinese Academy of Sciences

Mark Gurwell

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Kazuhiro Hada

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

The Graduate University for Advanced Studies (SOKENDAI)

Michael H. Hecht

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

Ronald Hesper

Rijksuniversiteit Groningen

Luis C. Ho

Beijing University of Technology

Paul Ho

Academia Sinica

Mareki Honma

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

The Graduate University for Advanced Studies (SOKENDAI)

Chih-Wei L. Huang

Academia Sinica

Lei Huang

Chinese Academy of Sciences

David H. Hughes

Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Óptica y Electrońica

Shiro Ikeda

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

The Institute of Statistical Mathematics

University of Tokyo

The Graduate University for Advanced Studies (SOKENDAI)

Makoto Inoue

Academia Sinica

Sara Issaoun

Radboud Universiteit

David J. James

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Harvard University

Buell T. Jannuzi

University of Arizona

Michael Janssen

Radboud Universiteit

Britton Jeter

University of Waterloo

Wu Jiang

Chinese Academy of Sciences

Michael D. Johnson

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Harvard University

Svetlana Jorstad

Boston University

St Petersburg Univ

Taehyun Jung

Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute

University of Science and Technology (UST)

Mansour Karami

University of Waterloo

Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics

Ramesh Karuppusamy

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Tomohisa Kawashima

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

Garrett K. Keating

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Mark Kettenis

Joint Institute for VLBI in Europe (JIVE)

Jae-Young Kim

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Junhan Kim

University of Arizona

Jongsoo Kim

Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute

Motoki Kino

Kogakuin University of Technology and Engineering

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

Jun Yi Koay

Academia Sinica

Patrick M. Koch

Academia Sinica

Shoko Koyama

Academia Sinica

Michael Kramer

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Carsten Kramer

Institut de RadioAstronomie Millimetrique (IRAM)

Thomas P. Krichbaum

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Cheng-Yu Kuo

National Sun Yat-Sen University Taiwan

Tod R. Lauer

National Optical Astronomy Observatory

Sang-Sung Lee

Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute

Yan-Rong Li

Chinese Academy of Sciences

Zhiyuan Li

Nanjing University

Michael Lindqvist

Chalmers, Rymd-, geo- och miljövetenskap, Onsala rymdobservatorium, Onsala rymdobservatorium, Observationssupport

Kuo Liu

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Elisabetta Liuzzo

INAF Ist Radioastron

Wen-Ping Lo

Academia Sinica

National Taiwan University

Andrei P. Lobanov

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Laurent Loinard

Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico

Colin Lonsdale

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

Ru-Sen Lu

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Chinese Academy of Sciences

Nicholas R. MacDonald

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Jirong Mao

Chinese Academy of Sciences

Sera Markoff

Universiteit Van Amsterdam

Daniel P. Marrone

University of Arizona

Alan P. Marscher

Boston University

Ivan Marti-Vidal

Chalmers, Rymd-, geo- och miljövetenskap, Onsala rymdobservatorium

Satoki Matsushita

Academia Sinica

Lynn D. Matthews

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

Lia Medeiros

University of California at Santa Barbara

University of Arizona

Karl M. Menten

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Yosuke Mizuno

Johann Wolfgang Goethe Universität Frankfurt am Main

Izumi Mizuno

East Asian Observatory

James M. Moran

Harvard University

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Kotaro Moriyama

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

Monika Moscibrodzka

Radboud Universiteit

Cornelia Muller

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Radboud Universiteit

Hiroshi Nagai

The Graduate University for Advanced Studies (SOKENDAI)

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

Neil M. Nagar

Universidad de Concepción

Masanori Nakamura

Academia Sinica

Ramesh Narayan

Harvard University

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Gopal Narayanan

University of Massachusetts

Iniyan Natarajan

Rhodes University

Roberto Neri

Institut de RadioAstronomie Millimetrique (IRAM)

Chunchong Ni

University of Waterloo

Aristeidis Noutsos

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Hiroki Okino

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

University of Tokyo

Hector Olivares

Johann Wolfgang Goethe Universität Frankfurt am Main

Tomoaki Oyama

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

Feryal Ozel

University of Arizona

Daniel C. M. Palumbo

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Harvard University

Nimesh Patel

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Ue-Li Pen

Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics

University of Toronto

Canadian Institute for Advanced Research

Dominic W. Pesce

Harvard University

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Vincent Pietu

Institut de RadioAstronomie Millimetrique (IRAM)

Richard Plambeck

University of California at Berkeley

Aleksandar PopStefanija

University of Massachusetts

Oliver Porth

Universiteit Van Amsterdam

Johann Wolfgang Goethe Universität Frankfurt am Main

Ben Prather

University of Illinois

Jorge A. Preciado-Lopez

Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics

Dimitrios Psaltis

University of Arizona

Hung-Yi Pu

Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics

Venkatessh Ramakrishnan

Universidad de Concepción

Ramprasad Rao

Academia Sinica

Mark G. Rawlings

East Asian Observatory

Alexander W. Raymond

Harvard University

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Luciano Rezzolla

Johann Wolfgang Goethe Universität Frankfurt am Main

Bart Ripperda

Johann Wolfgang Goethe Universität Frankfurt am Main

Freek Roelofs

Radboud Universiteit

Alan Rogers

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

Eduardo Ros

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Mel Rose

University of Arizona

Arash Roshanineshat

University of Arizona

Helge Rottmann

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Alan L. Roy

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Chet Ruszczyk

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

Benjamin R. Ryan

Los Alamos National Laboratory

Kazi L. J. Rygl

INAF Ist Radioastron

Salvador Sanchez

Institut de RadioAstronomie Millimetrique (IRAM)

David Sanchez-Arguelles

Consejo Nacl Ciencia & Technol

Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Óptica y Electrońica

Mahito Sasada

Hiroshima University

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

Tuomas Savolainen

Aalto-Yliopisto

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

F. Peter Schloerb

University of Massachusetts

Karl-Friedrich Schuster

Institut de RadioAstronomie Millimetrique (IRAM)

Lijing Shao

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Beijing University of Technology

Zhiqiang Shen

Chinese Academy of Sciences

Des Small

Joint Institute for VLBI in Europe (JIVE)

Bong Won Sohn

Yonsei University

Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute

University of Science and Technology (UST)

Jason SooHoo

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

Fumie Tazaki

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

Paul Tiede

University of Waterloo

Remo P. J. Tilanus

Nederlandse Organisatie voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek (NWO)

Universiteit Leiden

Radboud Universiteit

Michael Titus

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

Kenji Toma

Tohoku University

Pablo Torne

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Institut de RadioAstronomie Millimetrique (IRAM)

Tyler Trent

University of Arizona

Sascha Trippe

Seoul National University

Shuichiro Tsuda

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

Ilse van Bemmel

Joint Institute for VLBI in Europe (JIVE)

Huib Jan van Langevelde

Joint Institute for VLBI in Europe (JIVE)

Universiteit Leiden

Daniel R. van Rossum

Radboud Universiteit

Jan Wagner

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

John Wardle

Brandeis University

Jonathan Weintroub

Harvard University

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Norbert Wex

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Robert Wharton

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Maciek Wielgus

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Harvard University

George N. Wong

University of Illinois

Qingwen Wu

Huazhong University of Science and Technology

Andre Young

Radboud Universiteit

Ken Young

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Ziri Younsi

Johann Wolfgang Goethe Universität Frankfurt am Main

University College London (UCL)

Feng Yuan

Chinese Academy of Sciences

Ye-Fei Yuan

University of Science and Technology of China

J. Anton Zensus

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Guangyao Zhao

Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute

Shan-Shan Zhao

Nanjing University

Radboud Universiteit

Ziyan Zhu

Harvard University

Jadyn Anczarski

Villanova Univ, Dept Phys, 800 E Lancaster Ave

Frederick K. Baganoff

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

Andreas Eckart

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Universität zu Köln

Joseph R. Farah

University of Massachusetts Boston

Harvard University

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Daryl Haggard

McGill University

Canadian Institute for Advanced Research

Zheng Meyer-Zhao

Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy (ASTRON)

Academia Sinica

Daniel Michalik

University of Chicago

European Space Research and Technology Centre (ESA ESTEC)

Andrew Nadolski

University of Illinois

Joseph Neilsen

Villanova Univ, Dept Phys, 800 E Lancaster Ave

Hiroaki Nishioka

Academia Sinica

Michael A. Nowak

Washington University in St. Louis

Nicolas Pradel

Academia Sinica

Rurik A. Primiani

Systems & Technology Research

Kamal Souccar

University of Massachusetts

Laura Vertatschitsch

Systems & Technology Research

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Paul Yamaguchi

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Shuo Zhang

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

Astrophysical Journal Letters

2041-8205 (ISSN) 2041-8213 (eISSN)

Vol. 875 1 L5

Ämneskategorier

Astronomi, astrofysik och kosmologi

DOI

10.3847/2041-8213/ab0f43

Mer information

Senast uppdaterat

2020-02-03