First M87 Event Horizon Telescope Results. V. Physical Origin of the Asymmetric Ring
Artikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift, 2019

The Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) has mapped the central compact radio source of the elliptical galaxy M87 at 1.3 mm with unprecedented angular resolution. Here we consider the physical implications of the asymmetric ring seen in the 2017 EHT data. To this end, we construct a large library of models based on general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (GRMHD) simulations and synthetic images produced by general relativistic ray tracing. We compare the observed visibilities with this library and confirm that the asymmetric ring is consistent with earlier predictions of strong gravitational lensing of synchrotron emission from a hot plasma orbiting near the black hole event horizon. The ring radius and ring asymmetry depend on black hole mass and spin, respectively, and both are therefore expected to be stable when observed in future EHT campaigns. Overall, the observed image is consistent with expectations for the shadow of a spinning Kerr black hole as predicted by general relativity. If the black hole spin and M87's large scale jet are aligned, then the black hole spin vector is pointed away from Earth. Models in our library of non-spinning black holes are inconsistent with the observations as they do not produce sufficiently powerful jets. At the same time, in those models that produce a sufficiently powerful jet, the latter is powered by extraction of black hole spin energy through mechanisms akin to the Blandford-Znajek process. We briefly consider alternatives to a black hole for the central compact object. Analysis of existing EHT polarization data and data taken simultaneously at other wavelengths will soon enable new tests of the GRMHD models, as will future EHT campaigns at 230 and 345 GHz.

accretion, accretion disks

techniques: high angular resolution

black hole physics

galaxies: individual (M87)

galaxies: jets magnetohydrodynamics (MHD)

Författare

Kazunori Akiyama

National Radio Astronomy Observatory

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

Harvard University

Antxon Alberdi

Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas

Walter Alef

Max Planck-institutet

Keiichi Asada

Academia Sinica

Rebecca Azulay

Universitat de Valencia

Max Planck-institutet

Anne-Kathrin Baczko

Max Planck-institutet

David Ball

University of Arizona

Mislav Balokovic

Harvard University

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

John Barrett

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

Dan Bintley

East Asian Observ, 660 N Aohoku Pl

Lindy Blackburn

Harvard University

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Wilfred Boland

Nederlandse Onderzoekschool voor Astronomie (NOVA)

Katherine L. Bouman

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

California Institute of Technology (Caltech)

Harvard University

Geoffrey C. Bower

Academia Sinica

Michael Bremer

Institut de RadioAstronomie Millimetrique (IRAM)

Christiaan D. Brinkerink

Radboud Universiteit

Roger Brissenden

Harvard University

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Silke Britzen

Max Planck-institutet

Avery E. Broderick

Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics

University of Waterloo

Dominique Broguiere

Institut de RadioAstronomie Millimetrique (IRAM)

Thomas Bronzwaer

Radboud Universiteit

Do-Young Byun

Univ Sci & Technol

Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute

John E. Carlstrom

Univ Chicago, Dept Phys, 5720 South Ellis Ave

Univ Chicago, Dept Astron & Astrophys, 5640 South Ellis Ave

Univ Chicago, Kavli Inst Cosmol Phys

Univ Chicago, Enrico Fermi Inst, 5640 South Ellis Ave

Andrew Chael

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Harvard University

Chi-kwan Chan

University of Arizona

Shami Chatterjee

Cornell Univ, Cornell Ctr Astrophys & Planetary Sci

Koushik Chatterjee

Universiteit Van Amsterdam

Ming-Tang Chen

Academia Sinica

Yongjun Chen

Chinese Academy of Sciences

Ilje Cho

Univ Sci & Technol

Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute

Pierre Christian

University of Arizona

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

John Conway

Chalmers, Rymd-, geo- och miljövetenskap, Onsala rymdobservatorium

James M. Cordes

Cornell Univ, Cornell Ctr Astrophys & Planetary Sci

Geoffrey B. Crew

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

Yuzhu Cui

The Graduate University for Advanced Studies (SOKENDAI)

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

Jordy Davelaar

Radboud Universiteit

Mariafelicia De Laurentis

Universita degli Studi di Napoli Federico II

Ist Nazl Fis Nucl

Johann Wolfgang Goethe Universität Frankfurt am Main

Roger Deane

Univ Pretoria

Rhodes Univ

Jessica Dempsey

East Asian Observ, 660 N Aohoku Pl

Gregory Desvignes

Max Planck-institutet

Jason Dexter

Max Planck-institutet

Sheperd S. Doeleman

Harvard University

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Ralph P. Eatough

Max Planck-institutet

Heino Falcke

Radboud Universiteit

Vincent L. Fish

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

Ed Fomalont

National Radio Astronomy Observatory

Raquel Fraga-Encinas

Radboud Universiteit

Per Friberg

East Asian Observ, 660 N Aohoku Pl

Christian M. Fromm

Johann Wolfgang Goethe Universität Frankfurt am Main

Jose L. Gomez

Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas

Peter Galisonl

National Radio Astronomy Observatory

Harvard University

Charles F. Gammie

University of Illinois

Roberto Garcia

Institut de RadioAstronomie Millimetrique (IRAM)

Olivier Gentaz

Institut de RadioAstronomie Millimetrique (IRAM)

Boris Georgiev

University of Waterloo

Ciriaco Goddi

Radboud Universiteit

Universiteit Leiden

Roman Gold

Johann Wolfgang Goethe Universität Frankfurt am Main

Minfeng Gu

Chinese Academy of Sciences

Mark Gurwell

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Kazuhiro Hada

The Graduate University for Advanced Studies (SOKENDAI)

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

Michael H. Hecht

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

Ronald Hesper

Rijksuniversiteit Groningen

Luis C. Ho

Beijing University of Technology

Paul Ho

Academia Sinica

Mareki Honma

The Graduate University for Advanced Studies (SOKENDAI)

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

Chih-Wei L. Huang

Academia Sinica

Lei Huang

Chinese Academy of Sciences

David H. Hughes

Inst Nacl Astrofis Opt & Electr

Shiro Ikeda

The Institute of Statistical Mathematics

University of Tokyo

The Graduate University for Advanced Studies (SOKENDAI)

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

Makoto Inoue

Academia Sinica

Sara Issaoun

Radboud Universiteit

David J. James

Harvard University

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Buell T. Jannuzi

University of Arizona

Michael Janssen

Radboud Universiteit

Britton Jeter

University of Waterloo

Wu Jiang

Chinese Academy of Sciences

Michael D. Johnson

Harvard University

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Svetlana Jorstad

St Petersburg Univ

Boston University

Taehyun Jung

Univ Sci & Technol

Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute

Mansour Karami

Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics

University of Waterloo

Ramesh Karuppusamy

Max Planck-institutet

Tomohisa Kawashima

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

Garrett K. Keating

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Mark Kettenis

Joint Institute for VLBI in Europe (JIVE)

Jae-Young Kim

Max Planck-institutet

Junhan Kim

University of Arizona

Jongsoo Kim

Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute

Motoki Kino

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

Kogakuin University of Technology and Engineering

Jun Yi Koay

Academia Sinica

Patrick M. Koch

Academia Sinica

Shoko Koyama

Academia Sinica

Michael Kramer

Max Planck-institutet

Carsten Kramer

Institut de RadioAstronomie Millimetrique (IRAM)

Thomas P. Krichbaum

Max Planck-institutet

Cheng-Yu Kuo

Natl Sun Yat Sen Univ

Tod R. Lauer

Natl Opt Astron Observ, 950 North Cherry Ave

Sang-Sung Lee

Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute

Yan-Rong Li

Chinese Academy of Sciences

Zhiyuan Li

Nanjing University

Michael Lindqvist

Chalmers, Rymd-, geo- och miljövetenskap, Onsala rymdobservatorium, Onsala rymdobservatorium, Observationssupport

Kuo Liu

Max Planck-institutet

Elisabetta Liuzzo

INAF Ist Radioastron

Wen-Ping Lo

Natl Taiwan Univ

Academia Sinica

Andrei P. Lobanov

Max Planck-institutet

Laurent Loinard

Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico

Colin Lonsdale

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

Ru-Sen Lu

Max Planck-institutet

Chinese Academy of Sciences

Nicholas R. MacDonald

Max Planck-institutet

Jirong Mao

Chinese Academy of Sciences

Sera Markoff

Universiteit Van Amsterdam

Daniel P. Marrone

University of Arizona

Alan P. Marscher

Boston University

Ivan Marti-Vidal

Chalmers, Rymd-, geo- och miljövetenskap, Onsala rymdobservatorium

Satoki Matsushita

Academia Sinica

Lynn D. Matthews

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

Lia Medeiros

University of Arizona

University of California at Santa Barbara

Karl M. Menten

Max Planck-institutet

Yosuke Mizuno

Johann Wolfgang Goethe Universität Frankfurt am Main

Izumi Mizuno

East Asian Observ, 660 N Aohoku Pl

James M. Moran

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Harvard University

Kotaro Moriyama

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

Monika Moscibrodzka

Radboud Universiteit

Cornelia Muller

Radboud Universiteit

Max Planck-institutet

Hiroshi Nagai

The Graduate University for Advanced Studies (SOKENDAI)

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

Neil M. Nagar

Universidad de Concepción

Masanori Nakamura

Academia Sinica

Ramesh Narayan

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Harvard University

Gopal Narayanan

Univ Massachusetts, Dept Astron

Iniyan Natarajan

Rhodes Univ

Roberto Neri

Institut de RadioAstronomie Millimetrique (IRAM)

Chunchong Ni

University of Waterloo

Aristeidis Noutsos

Max Planck-institutet

Hiroki Okino

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

University of Tokyo

Hector Olivares

Johann Wolfgang Goethe Universität Frankfurt am Main

Tomoaki Oyama

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

Feryal Ozel

University of Arizona

Daniel C. M. Palumbo

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Harvard University

Nimesh Patel

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Ue-Li Pen

Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics

University of Toronto

Canadian Inst Adv Res

Dominic W. Pesce

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Harvard University

Vincent Pietu

Institut de RadioAstronomie Millimetrique (IRAM)

Richard Plambeck

University of California at Berkeley

Aleksandar PopStefanija

Univ Massachusetts, Dept Astron

Oliver Porth

Johann Wolfgang Goethe Universität Frankfurt am Main

Universiteit Van Amsterdam

Ben Prather

University of Illinois

Jorge A. Preciado-Lopez

Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics

Dimitrios Psaltis

University of Arizona

Hung-Yi Pu

Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics

Venkatessh Ramakrishnan

Universidad de Concepción

Ramprasad Rao

Academia Sinica

Mark G. Rawlings

East Asian Observ, 660 N Aohoku Pl

Alexander W. Raymond

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Harvard University

Luciano Rezzolla

Johann Wolfgang Goethe Universität Frankfurt am Main

Bart Ripperda

Johann Wolfgang Goethe Universität Frankfurt am Main

Freek Roelofs

Radboud Universiteit

Alan Rogers

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

Eduardo Ros

Max Planck-institutet

Mel Rose

University of Arizona

Arash Roshanineshat

University of Arizona

Helge Rottmann

Max Planck-institutet

Alan L. Roy

Max Planck-institutet

Chet Ruszczyk

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

Benjamin R. Ryan

Los Alamos Natl Lab, CCS-2, POB 1663

Los Alamos Natl Lab, Ctr Theoret Astrophys

Kazi L. J. Rygl

INAF Ist Radioastron

Salvador Sanchez

Institut de RadioAstronomie Millimetrique (IRAM)

David Sanchez-Arguelles

Consejo Nacl Ciencia & Technol

Inst Nacl Astrofis Opt & Electr

Mahito Sasada

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

Hiroshima Univ

Tuomas Savolainen

Max Planck-institutet

Aalto-Yliopisto

F. Peter Schloerb

Univ Massachusetts, Dept Astron

Karl-Friedrich Schuster

Institut de RadioAstronomie Millimetrique (IRAM)

Lijing Shao

Beijing University of Technology

Max Planck-institutet

Zhiqiang Shen

Chinese Academy of Sciences

Des Small

Joint Institute for VLBI in Europe (JIVE)

Bong Won Sohn

Yonsei University

Univ Sci & Technol

Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute

Jason SooHoo

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

Fumie Tazaki

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

Paul Tiede

University of Waterloo

Remo P. J. Tilanus

Radboud Universiteit

Nederlandse Organisatie voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek (NWO)

Universiteit Leiden

Michael Titus

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

Kenji Toma

Tohoku University

Pablo Torne

Max Planck-institutet

Institut de RadioAstronomie Millimetrique (IRAM)

Tyler Trent

University of Arizona

Sascha Trippe

Seoul National University

Shuichiro Tsuda

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

Ilse van Bemmel

Joint Institute for VLBI in Europe (JIVE)

Huib Jan van Langevelde

Joint Institute for VLBI in Europe (JIVE)

Universiteit Leiden

Daniel R. van Rossum

Radboud Universiteit

Jan Wagner

Max Planck-institutet

John Wardle

Brandeis Univ, Dept Phys, 415 South St

Jonathan Weintroub

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Harvard University

Norbert Wex

Max Planck-institutet

Robert Wharton

Max Planck-institutet

Maciek Wielgus

Harvard University

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

George N. Wong

University of Illinois

Qingwen Wu

Huazhong University of Science and Technology

Andre Young

Radboud Universiteit

Ken Young

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Ziri Younsi

Johann Wolfgang Goethe Universität Frankfurt am Main

University College London (UCL)

Feng Yuan

Chinese Academy of Sciences

Ye-Fei Yuan

University of Science and Technology of China

J. Anton Zensus

Max Planck-institutet

Guangyao Zhao

Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute

Shan-Shan Zhao

Nanjing University

Radboud Universiteit

Ziyan Zhu

Harvard University

Jadyn Anczarski

Villanova Univ, Dept Phys, 800 E Lancaster Ave

Frederick K. Baganoff

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

Andreas Eckart

Universität zu Köln

Max Planck-institutet

Joseph R. Farah

Univ Massachusetts, 100 William T, Morrissey Blvd

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Harvard University

Daryl Haggard

Canadian Inst Adv Res

McGill University

Zheng Meyer-Zhao

Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy (ASTRON)

Academia Sinica

Daniel Michalik

European Space Research and Technology Centre (ESA ESTEC)

Univ Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Ave

Andrew Nadolski

University of Illinois

Joseph Neilsen

Villanova Univ, Dept Phys, 800 E Lancaster Ave

Hiroaki Nishioka

Academia Sinica

Michael A. Nowak

Washington University in St. Louis

Nicolas Pradel

Academia Sinica

Rurik A. Primiani

Systems & Technology Research

Kamal Souccar

Univ Massachusetts, Dept Astron

Laura Vertatschitsch

Systems & Technology Research

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Paul Yamaguchi

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Shuo Zhang

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

Astrophysical Journal Letters

2041-8205 (ISSN) 2041-8213 (eISSN)

Vol. 875 1 L5

Ämneskategorier

Astronomi, astrofysik och kosmologi

DOI

10.3847/2041-8213/ab0f43

Mer information

Senast uppdaterat

2019-09-10