First M87 Event Horizon Telescope Results. I. the Shadow of the Supermassive Black Hole
Artikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift, 2019

When surrounded by a transparent emission region, black holes are expected to reveal a dark shadow caused by gravitational light bending and photon capture at the event horizon. To image and study this phenomenon, we have assembled the Event Horizon Telescope, a global very long baseline interferometry array observing at a wavelength of 1.3 mm. This allows us to reconstruct event-horizon-scale images of the supermassive black hole candidate in the center of the giant elliptical galaxy M87. We have resolved the central compact radio source as an asymmetric bright emission ring with a diameter of 42 ±3 μas, which is circular and encompasses a central depression in brightness with a flux ratio ≈10:1. The emission ring is recovered using different calibration and imaging schemes, with its diameter and width remaining stable over four different observations carried out in different days. Overall, the observed image is consistent with expectations for the shadow of a Kerr black hole as predicted by general relativity. The asymmetry in brightness in the ring can be explained in terms of relativistic beaming of the emission from a plasma rotating close to the speed of light around a black hole. We compare our images to an extensive library of ray-traced general-relativistic magnetohydrodynamic simulations of black holes and derive a central mass of M =(6.5 ±0.7) ×10 9 M o . Our radio-wave observations thus provide powerful evidence for the presence of supermassive black holes in centers of galaxies and as the central engines of active galactic nuclei. They also present a new tool to explore gravity in its most extreme limit and on a mass scale that was so far not accessible.

Författare

The Event Horizon Telescope Collaboration

Kazunori Akiyama

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

National Radio Astronomy Observatory

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

Harvard University

Antxon Alberdi

CSIC - Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (IAA)

Walter Alef

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

K. Asada

Academia Sinica

R. Azulay

Universitat de Valencia

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

A. K. Baczko

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

David Ball

University of Arizona

Mislav Baloković

Harvard University

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

John Barrett

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

Dan Bintley

East Asian Observatory

Lindy Blackburn

Harvard University

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

W. Boland

Nederlandse Onderzoekschool voor Astronomie (NOVA)

K. L. Bouman

Harvard University

California Institute of Technology (Caltech)

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

G. C. Bower

Academia Sinica

M. Bremer

Institut de RadioAstronomie Millimetrique (IRAM)

C. D. Brinkerink

Radboud Universiteit

Roger Brissenden

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Harvard University

Silke Britzen

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Avery E. Broderick

University of Waterloo

Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics

D. Broguière

Institut de RadioAstronomie Millimetrique (IRAM)

Thomas Bronzwaer

Radboud Universiteit

Do Young Byun

University of Science and Technology (UST)

Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute

J. E. Carlstrom

University of Chicago

A. Chael

Harvard University

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Chi Kwan Chan

University of Arizona

S. Chatterjee

Cornell University

Koushik Chatterjee

Universiteit Van Amsterdam

Ming Tang Chen

Academia Sinica

Yongjun Chen

Chinese Academy of Sciences

Shanghai Astronomical Observatory

I. Cho

University of Science and Technology (UST)

Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute

Pierre Christian

University of Arizona

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

John Conway

Chalmers, Rymd-, geo- och miljövetenskap, Onsala rymdobservatorium

James M. Cordes

Cornell University

G. Crew

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

Yuzhu Cui

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

The Graduate University for Advanced Studies (SOKENDAI)

Jordy Davelaar

Radboud Universiteit

Mariafelicia De Laurentis

Universita degli Studi di Napoli Federico II

Johann Wolfgang Goethe Universität Frankfurt am Main

R. P. Deane

Rhodes University

Universiteit van Pretoria

Jessica Dempsey

East Asian Observatory

Gregory Desvignes

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Jason Dexter

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

S. Doeleman

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Harvard University

Ralph P. Eatough

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

H.D. Falcke

Radboud Universiteit

V. Fish

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

E. Fomalont

National Radio Astronomy Observatory

R. Fraga-Encinas

Radboud Universiteit

William T. Freeman

Google Inc.

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

P. Friberg

East Asian Observatory

Christian M. Fromm

Johann Wolfgang Goethe Universität Frankfurt am Main

J. L. Gomez

CSIC - Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (IAA)

Peter Galison

Harvard University

Charles F. Gammie

University of Illinois

Roberto Garcia

Institut de RadioAstronomie Millimetrique (IRAM)

Olivier Gentaz

Institut de RadioAstronomie Millimetrique (IRAM)

Boris Georgiev

University of Waterloo

C. Goddi

Universiteit Leiden

Radboud Universiteit

R. Gold

Johann Wolfgang Goethe Universität Frankfurt am Main

Minfeng Gu

Shanghai Astronomical Observatory

Chinese Academy of Sciences

M. Gurwell

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

K. Hada

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

The Graduate University for Advanced Studies (SOKENDAI)

Michael H. Hecht

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

R. Hesper

Rijksuniversiteit Groningen

Luis C. Ho

Beijing University of Technology

Paul Ho

Academia Sinica

Mareki Honma

The Graduate University for Advanced Studies (SOKENDAI)

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

Chih Wei L. Huang

Academia Sinica

Lei Huang

Chinese Academy of Sciences

Shanghai Astronomical Observatory

D. Hughes

Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Óptica y Electrońica

Shiro Ikeda

University of Tokyo

The Graduate University for Advanced Studies (SOKENDAI)

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

The Institute of Statistical Mathematics

Makoto Inoue

Academia Sinica

S. Issaoun

Radboud Universiteit

David J. James

Harvard University

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Buell T. Jannuzi

University of Arizona

M. Janßen

Radboud Universiteit

Britton Jeter

University of Waterloo

Wu Jiang

Shanghai Astronomical Observatory

Michael D. Johnson

Harvard University

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

S.G. Jorstad

Boston University

Saint Petersburg State University - Spsu

Taehyun Jung

University of Science and Technology (UST)

Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute

Mansour Karami

University of Waterloo

Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics

R. Karuppusamy

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Tomohisa Kawashima

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

G. Keating

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

M. M. Kettenis

Joint Institute for VLBI in Europe (JIVE)

Jae Young Kim

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Junhan Kim

University of Arizona

Jongsoo Kim

Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute

M. Kino

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

Kogakuin University of Technology and Engineering

Jun Yi Koay

Academia Sinica

Patrick M. Koch

Academia Sinica

Shoko Koyama

Academia Sinica

M. Kramer

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

C. Kramer

Institut de RadioAstronomie Millimetrique (IRAM)

T.P. Krichbaum

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Cheng Yu Kuo

National Sun Yat-Sen University Taiwan

Tod R. Lauer

National Optical Astronomy Observatory

Sang Sung Lee

Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute

Yan Rong Li

Institute of High Energy Physics Chinese Academy of Science

Astrophysical Journal Letters

2041-8205 (ISSN) 2041-8213 (eISSN)

Vol. 875 1 L1

Ämneskategorier

Subatomär fysik

Meteorologi och atmosfärforskning

Astronomi, astrofysik och kosmologi

DOI

10.3847/2041-8213/ab0ec7

Mer information

Senast uppdaterat

2019-09-18