First M87 Event Horizon Telescope Results. IV. Imaging the Central Supermassive Black Hole
Artikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift, 2019

We present the first Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) images of M87, using observations from April 2017 at 1.3 mm wavelength. These images show a prominent ring with a diameter of similar to 40 mu as, consistent with the size and shape of the lensed photon orbit encircling the "shadow" of a supermassive black hole. The ring is persistent across four observing nights and shows enhanced brightness in the south. To assess the reliability of these results, we implemented a two-stage imaging procedure. In the first stage, four teams, each blind to the others' work, produced images of M87 using both an established method (CLEAN) and a newer technique (regularized maximum likelihood). This stage allowed us to avoid shared human bias and to assess common features among independent reconstructions. In the second stage, we reconstructed synthetic data from a large survey of imaging parameters and then compared the results with the corresponding ground truth images. This stage allowed us to select parameters objectively to use when reconstructing images of M87. Across all tests in both stages, the ring diameter and asymmetry remained stable, insensitive to the choice of imaging technique. We describe the EHT imaging procedures, the primary image features in M87, and the dependence of these features on imaging assumptions.

black hole physics

techniques: high angular resolution

techniques: interferometric

galaxies: jets

techniques: image processing

galaxies: individual (M87)

Författare

Kazunori Akiyama

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

National Radio Astronomy Observatory

Harvard University

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

Antxon Alberdi

Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas

Walter Alef

Max Planck-institutet

Keiichi Asada

Academia Sinica

Rebecca Azulay

Max Planck-institutet

Universitat de Valencia

Anne-Kathrin Baczko

Max Planck-institutet

David Ball

University of Arizona

Mislav Balokovic

Harvard University

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

John Barrett

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

Dan Bintley

East Asian Observ, 660 N Aohoku Pl

Lindy Blackburn

Harvard University

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Wilfred Boland

Nederlandse Onderzoekschool voor Astronomie (NOVA)

Katherine L. Bouman

Harvard University

California Institute of Technology (Caltech)

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Geoffrey C. Bower

Academia Sinica

Michael Bremer

Institut de RadioAstronomie Millimetrique (IRAM)

Christiaan D. Brinkerink

Radboud Universiteit

Roger Brissenden

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Harvard University

Silke Britzen

Max Planck-institutet

Avery E. Broderick

Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics

University of Waterloo

Dominique Broguiere

Institut de RadioAstronomie Millimetrique (IRAM)

Thomas Bronzwaer

Radboud Universiteit

Do-Young Byun

Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute

Univ Sci & Technol

John E. Carlstrom

University of Chicago

Andrew Chael

Harvard University

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Chi-Kwan Chan

University of Arizona

Shami Chatterjee

Cornell University

Koushik Chatterjee

Universiteit Van Amsterdam

Ming-Tang Chen

Academia Sinica

Yongjun Chen

Chinese Academy of Sciences

Ilje Cho

Univ Sci & Technol

Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute

Pierre Christian

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

University of Arizona

John Conway

Onsala Space Observatory

Chalmers, Rymd-, geo- och miljövetenskap, Onsala rymdobservatorium

James M. Cordes

Cornell University

Geoffrey B. Crew

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

Yuzhu Cui

The Graduate University for Advanced Studies (SOKENDAI)

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

Jordy Davelaar

Radboud Universiteit

Mariafelicia De Laurentis

Universita degli Studi di Napoli Federico II

Compl Univ Monte S Angelo

Johann Wolfgang Goethe Universität Frankfurt am Main

Roger Deane

Universiteit van Pretoria

Rhodes University

Jessica Dempsey

East Asian Observ, 660 N Aohoku Pl

Gregory Desvignes

Max Planck-institutet

Jason Dexter

Max Planck-institutet

Sheperd S. Doeleman

Harvard University

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Ralph P. Eatough

Max Planck-institutet

Heino Falcke

Radboud Universiteit

Vincent L. Fish

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

Ed Fomalont

National Radio Astronomy Observatory

Raquel Fraga-Encinas

Radboud Universiteit

William T. Freeman

Google Inc.

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

Per Friberg

East Asian Observ, 660 N Aohoku Pl

Christian M. Fromm

Johann Wolfgang Goethe Universität Frankfurt am Main

Jose L. Gomez

Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas

Peter Galison

Harvard University

Charles F. Gammie

University of Illinois

Roberto Garcia

Institut de RadioAstronomie Millimetrique (IRAM)

Olivier Gentaz

Institut de RadioAstronomie Millimetrique (IRAM)

Boris Georgiev

University of Waterloo

Ciriaco Goddi

Radboud Universiteit

Universiteit Leiden

Roman Gold

Johann Wolfgang Goethe Universität Frankfurt am Main

Minfeng Gu

Chinese Academy of Sciences

Mark Gurwell

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Kazuhiro Hada

The Graduate University for Advanced Studies (SOKENDAI)

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

Michael H. Hecht

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

Ronald Hesper

Rijksuniversiteit Groningen

Luis C. Ho

Beijing University of Technology

Paul Ho

Academia Sinica

Mareki Honma

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

The Graduate University for Advanced Studies (SOKENDAI)

Chih-Wei L. Huang

Academia Sinica

Lei Huang

Chinese Academy of Sciences

David H. Hughes

Inst Nacl Astrofis Opt & Electr

Shiro Ikeda

University of Tokyo

The Graduate University for Advanced Studies (SOKENDAI)

The Institute of Statistical Mathematics

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

Makoto Inoue

Academia Sinica

Sara Issaoun

Radboud Universiteit

David J. James

Harvard University

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Michael Janssen

Radboud Universiteit

Britton Jeter

University of Waterloo

Wu Jiang

Chinese Academy of Sciences

Michael D. Johnson

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Harvard University

Svetlana Jorstad

Saint Petersburg State University - Spsu

Boston University

Taehyun Jung

Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute

Mansour Karami

University of Waterloo

Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics

Ramesh Karuppusamy

Max Planck-institutet

Tomohisa Kawashima

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

Garrett K. Keating

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Mark Kettenis

Joint Institute for VLBI in Europe (JIVE)

Jae-Young Kim

Max Planck-institutet

Junhan Kim

University of Arizona

Jongsoo Kim

Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute

Motoki Kino

Kogakuin University of Technology and Engineering

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

Jun Yi Koay

Academia Sinica

Patrick M. Koch

Academia Sinica

Shoko Koyama

Academia Sinica

Michael Kramer

Max Planck-institutet

Carsten Kramer

Institut de RadioAstronomie Millimetrique (IRAM)

Thomas P. Krichbaum

Max Planck-institutet

Cheng-Yu Kuo

Natl Sun Yat Sen Univ

Tod R. Lauer

Natl Opt Astron Observ, 950 North Cherry Ave

Sang-Sung Lee

Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute

Yan-Rong Li

Chinese Academy of Sciences

Zhiyuan Li

Nanjing University

Michael Lindqvist

Chalmers, Rymd-, geo- och miljövetenskap, Onsala rymdobservatorium, Onsala rymdobservatorium, Observationssupport

Onsala Space Observatory

Kuo Liu

Max Planck-institutet

Elisabetta Liuzzo

Italian ALMA Reg Ctr

Wen-Ping Lo

Natl Taiwan Univ

Academia Sinica

Andrei P. Lobanov

Max Planck-institutet

Laurent Loinard

Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico

Colin Lonsdale

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

Ru-Sen Lu

Max Planck-institutet

Chinese Academy of Sciences

Nicholas R. MacDonald

Max Planck-institutet

Jirong Mao

Chinese Academy of Sciences

Sera Markoff

Universiteit Van Amsterdam

Daniel P. Marrone

University of Arizona

Alan P. Marscher

Boston University

Ivan Marti-Vidal

Chalmers, Rymd-, geo- och miljövetenskap, Onsala rymdobservatorium

Onsala Space Observatory

Satoki Matsushita

Academia Sinica

Lynn D. Matthews

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

Lia Medeiros

University of California at Santa Barbara

University of Arizona

Karl M. Menten

Max Planck-institutet

Yosuke Mizuno

Johann Wolfgang Goethe Universität Frankfurt am Main

Izumi Mizuno

East Asian Observ, 660 N Aohoku Pl

James M. Moran

Harvard University

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Kotaro Moriyama

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

Monika Moscibrodzka

Radboud Universiteit

Cornelia Mueller

Max Planck-institutet

Radboud Universiteit

Hiroshi Nagai

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

The Graduate University for Advanced Studies (SOKENDAI)

Neil M. Nagar

Universidad de Concepción

Masanori Nakamura

Academia Sinica

Ramesh Narayan

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Harvard University

Gopal Narayanan

University of Massachusetts

Iniyan Natarajan

Rhodes University

Roberto Neri

Institut de RadioAstronomie Millimetrique (IRAM)

Chunchong Ni

University of Waterloo

Aristeidis Noutsos

Max Planck-institutet

Hiroki Okino

University of Tokyo

Hector Olivares

Johann Wolfgang Goethe Universität Frankfurt am Main

Feryal Ozel

University of Arizona

Daniel C. M. Palumbo

Harvard University

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Nimesh Patel

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Ue-Li Pen

University of Toronto

Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics

Canadian Inst Adv Res

Dominic W. Pesce

Harvard University

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Vincent Pietu

Institut de RadioAstronomie Millimetrique (IRAM)

Richard Plambeck

University of California at Berkeley

Aleksandar PopStefanija

University of Massachusetts

Oliver Porth

Universiteit Van Amsterdam

Johann Wolfgang Goethe Universität Frankfurt am Main

Ben Prather

University of Illinois

Jorge A. Preciado-Lopez

Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics

Dimitrios Psaltis

University of Arizona

Hung-Yi Pu

Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics

Venkatessh Ramakrishnan

Universidad de Concepción

Ramprasad Rao

Academia Sinica

Mark G. Rawlings

East Asian Observ, 660 N Aohoku Pl

Alexander W. Raymond

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Harvard University

Luciano Rezzolla

Johann Wolfgang Goethe Universität Frankfurt am Main

Bart Ripperda

Johann Wolfgang Goethe Universität Frankfurt am Main

Freek Roelofs

Radboud Universiteit

Alan Rogers

East Asian Observ, 660 N Aohoku Pl

Univ Sci & Technol

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

University of Waterloo

Eduardo Ros

Max Planck-institutet

Mel Rose

University of Arizona

Arash Roshanineshat

University of Arizona

Helge Rottmann

Max Planck-institutet

Alan L. Roy

Max Planck-institutet

Chet Ruszczyk

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

Benjamin R. Ryan

Los Alamos National Laboratory

Kazi L. J. Rygl

Italian ALMA Reg Ctr

Salvador Sanchez

Institut de RadioAstronomie Millimetrique (IRAM)

David Sanchez-Arguelles

Inst Nacl Astrofis Opt & Electr

Consejo Nacl Ciencia & Technol

Mahito Sasada

Hiroshima University

Tuomas Savolainen

Max Planck-institutet

Aalto-Yliopisto

F. Peter Schloerb

University of Massachusetts

Karl-Friedrich Schuster

Institut de RadioAstronomie Millimetrique (IRAM)

Lijing Shao

Max Planck-institutet

Beijing University of Technology

Zhiqiang Shen

Chinese Academy of Sciences

Universiteit Van Amsterdam

Des Small

Joint Institute for VLBI in Europe (JIVE)

Bong Won Sohn

Yonsei Univ

Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute

Univ Sci & Technol

Jason SooHoo

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

Fumie Tazaki

Chinese Academy of Sciences

Paul Tiede

University of Waterloo

Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics

Remo P. J. Tilanus

Nederlandse Organisatie voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek (NWO)

Radboud Universiteit

Universiteit Leiden

Michael Titus

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

Kenji Toma

Tohoku University

Pablo Torne

Max Planck-institutet

Institut de RadioAstronomie Millimetrique (IRAM)

Tyler Trent

University of Arizona

Sascha Trippe

Seoul National University

Ilse van Bemmel

Joint Institute for VLBI in Europe (JIVE)

Huib Jan van Langevelde

Joint Institute for VLBI in Europe (JIVE)

Universiteit Leiden

Daniel R. van Rossum

Radboud Universiteit

Jan Wagner

Max Planck-institutet

John Wardle

Brandeis University

Jonathan Weintroub

Harvard University

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Norbert Wex

Max Planck-institutet

Robert Wharton

Max Planck-institutet

Maciek Wielgus

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Harvard University

George N. Wong

University of Illinois

Qingwen Wu

Huazhong University of Science and Technology

Andre Young

Radboud Universiteit

Ken Young

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Ziri Younsi

University College London (UCL)

Johann Wolfgang Goethe Universität Frankfurt am Main

Feng Yuan

Chinese Academy of Sciences

Ye-Fei Yuan

University of Science and Technology of China

J. Anton Zensus

Max Planck-institutet

Guangyao Zhao

Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute

Shan-Shan Zhao

Radboud Universiteit

Nanjing University

Ziyan Zhu

Harvard University

Joseph R. Farah

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Harvard University

University of Massachusetts Boston

Zheng Meyer-Zhao

Academia Sinica

Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy (ASTRON)

Daniel Michalik

European Space Research and Technology Centre (ESA ESTEC)

Univ Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Ave

Andrew Nadolski

University of Illinois

Hiroaki Nishioka

Academia Sinica

Nicolas Pradel

Academia Sinica

Rurik A. Primiani

Systems & Technology Research

Kamal Souccar

Univ Massachusetts, Dept Astron

Laura Vertatschitsch

Systems & Technology Research

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Paul Yamaguchi

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Astrophysical Journal Letters

2041-8205 (ISSN) 2041-8213 (eISSN)

Vol. 875 1 L4

Ämneskategorier

Radiologi och bildbehandling

Datorseende och robotik (autonoma system)

Medicinsk bildbehandling

DOI

10.3847/2041-8213/ab0e85

Mer information

Senast uppdaterat

2019-08-19