First M87 Event Horizon Telescope Results. II. Array and Instrumentation
Artikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift, 2019

The Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) is a very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) array that comprises millimeter- and submillimeter-wavelength telescopes separated by distances comparable to the diameter of the Earth. At a nominal operating wavelength of ∼1.3 mm, EHT angular resolution (λ/D) is ∼25 μas, which is sufficient to resolve nearby supermassive black hole candidates on spatial and temporal scales that correspond to their event horizons. With this capability, the EHT scientific goals are to probe general relativistic effects in the strong-field regime and to study accretion and relativistic jet formation near the black hole boundary. In this Letter we describe the system design of the EHT, detail the technology and instrumentation that enable observations, and provide measures of its performance. Meeting the EHT science objectives has required several key developments that have facilitated the robust extension of the VLBI technique to EHT observing wavelengths and the production of instrumentation that can be deployed on a heterogeneous array of existing telescopes and facilities. To meet sensitivity requirements, high-bandwidth digital systems were developed that process data at rates of 64 gigabit s -1 , exceeding those of currently operating cm-wavelength VLBI arrays by more than an order of magnitude. Associated improvements include the development of phasing systems at array facilities, new receiver installation at several sites, and the deployment of hydrogen maser frequency standards to ensure coherent data capture across the array. These efforts led to the coordination and execution of the first Global EHT observations in 2017 April, and to event-horizon-scale imaging of the supermassive black hole candidate in M87.

gravitational lensing: strong

instrumentation: interferometers

galaxies: individual (M87)

black hole physics

Galaxy: center

techniques: high angular resolution

Författare

The Event Horizon Telescope Collaboration

Kazunori Akiyama

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

National Radio Astronomy Observatory

Harvard University

National Institutes of Natural Sciences - National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

Antxon Alberdi

CSIC - Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (IAA)

Walter Alef

Max Planck-institutet

K. Asada

National Taiwan University

R. Azulay

Max Planck-institutet

Universitat de Valencia

A. K. Baczko

Max Planck-institutet

David Ball

University of Arizona

Mislav Baloković

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Harvard University

John Barrett

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

Dan Bintley

East Asian Observatory

Lindy Blackburn

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Harvard University

W. Boland

Nederlandse Onderzoekschool voor Astronomie (NOVA)

K. L. Bouman

California Institute of Technology (Caltech)

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Harvard University

G. C. Bower

Academia Sinica

M. Bremer

Institut de RadioAstronomie Millimetrique (IRAM)

C. D. Brinkerink

Radboud Universiteit

Roger Brissenden

Harvard University

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Silke Britzen

Max Planck-institutet

Avery E. Broderick

University of Waterloo

Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics

D. Broguière

Institut de RadioAstronomie Millimetrique (IRAM)

Thomas Bronzwaer

Radboud Universiteit

Do Young Byun

University of Science and Technology (UST)

Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute

J. E. Carlstrom

University of Chicago

A. Chael

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Harvard University

Chi Kwan Chan

University of Arizona

S. Chatterjee

Cornell University

Koushik Chatterjee

Universiteit Van Amsterdam

Ming Tang Chen

Academia Sinica

Yongjun Chen

Chinese Academy of Sciences

Shanghai Astronomical Observatory

I. Cho

University of Science and Technology (UST)

Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute

Pierre Christian

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

University of Arizona

John Conway

Chalmers, Rymd-, geo- och miljövetenskap, Onsala rymdobservatorium

James M. Cordes

Cornell University

G. Crew

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

Yuzhu Cui

National Institutes of Natural Sciences - National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

The Graduate University for Advanced Studies (SOKENDAI)

Jordy Davelaar

Radboud Universiteit

Mariafelicia De Laurentis

Universita degli Studi di Napoli Federico II

Johann Wolfgang Goethe Universität Frankfurt am Main

R. P. Deane

Rhodes University

Universiteit van Pretoria

Jessica Dempsey

East Asian Observatory

Gregory Desvignes

Max Planck-institutet

Jason Dexter

Max Planck-institutet

S. Doeleman

Harvard University

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Ralph P. Eatough

Max Planck-institutet

H.D. Falcke

Radboud Universiteit

V. Fish

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

Ed Fomalont

National Radio Astronomy Observatory

R. Fraga-Encinas

Radboud Universiteit

P. Friberg

East Asian Observatory

Christian M. Fromm

Johann Wolfgang Goethe Universität Frankfurt am Main

J. L. Gomez

CSIC - Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (IAA)

Peter Galison

Harvard University

Charles F. Gammie

University of Illinois

Roberto Garcia

Institut de RadioAstronomie Millimetrique (IRAM)

Olivier Gentaz

Institut de RadioAstronomie Millimetrique (IRAM)

Boris Georgiev

University of Waterloo

C. Goddi

Universiteit Leiden

Radboud Universiteit

R. Gold

Johann Wolfgang Goethe Universität Frankfurt am Main

Minfeng Gu

Shanghai Astronomical Observatory

Chinese Academy of Sciences

M. Gurwell

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

K. Hada

National Institutes of Natural Sciences - National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

The Graduate University for Advanced Studies (SOKENDAI)

Michael H. Hecht

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

R. Hesper

Rijksuniversiteit Groningen

Luis C. Ho

Beijing University of Technology

P. T. P. Ho

National Taiwan University

Mareki Honma

The Graduate University for Advanced Studies (SOKENDAI)

National Institutes of Natural Sciences - National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

Chih Wei L. Huang

National Taiwan University

Lei Huang

Chinese Academy of Sciences

Shanghai Astronomical Observatory

D. Hughes

Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Óptica y Electrońica

Shiro Ikeda

The Institute of Statistical Mathematics

The Graduate University for Advanced Studies (SOKENDAI)

National Institutes of Natural Sciences - National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

University of Tokyo

Makoto Inoue

National Taiwan University

S. Issaoun

Radboud Universiteit

David J. James

Harvard University

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Buell T. Jannuzi

University of Arizona

M. Janßen

Radboud Universiteit

Britton Jeter

University of Waterloo

Wu Jiang

Shanghai Astronomical Observatory

Michael D. Johnson

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Harvard University

S.G. Jorstad

Saint Petersburg State University - Spsu

Boston University

Taehyun Jung

Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute

University of Science and Technology (UST)

Mansour Karami

University of Waterloo

Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics

R. Karuppusamy

Max Planck-institutet

Tomohisa Kawashima

National Institutes of Natural Sciences - National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

G. Keating

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

M. M. Kettenis

Joint Institute for VLBI in Europe (JIVE)

Jae Young Kim

Max Planck-institutet

Junhan Kim

University of Arizona

Jongsoo Kim

Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute

M. Kino

Kogakuin University of Technology and Engineering

National Institutes of Natural Sciences - National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

Jun Yi Koay

National Taiwan University

Patrick M. Koch

National Taiwan University

Shoko Koyama

National Taiwan University

M. Kramer

Max Planck-institutet

C. Kramer

Institut de RadioAstronomie Millimetrique (IRAM)

T.P. Krichbaum

Max Planck-institutet

Cheng Yu Kuo

National Sun Yat-Sen University Taiwan

Tod R. Lauer

National Optical Astronomy Observatory

Sang Sung Lee

Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute

Yan Rong Li

Institute of High Energy Physics Chinese Academy of Science

Zhiyuan Li

Nanjing University

Astrophysical Journal Letters

2041-8205 (ISSN) 2041-8213 (eISSN)

Vol. 875 1 L2

Ämneskategorier

Acceleratorfysik och instrumentering

Rymd- och flygteknik

Signalbehandling

DOI

10.3847/2041-8213/ab0c96

Mer information

Senast uppdaterat

2019-07-22