Influence of Bio-Oil Phospholipid on the Hydrodeoxygenation Activity of NiMoS/Al2O3 Catalyst
Artikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift, 2018
Hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) activity of a typical hydrotreating catalyst, sulfided NiMo/γ-Al2O3 for deoxygenation of a fatty acid has been explored in a batch reactor at 54 bar and 320 °C in the presence of contaminants, like phospholipids, which are known to be present in renewable feeds. Oleic acid was used for the investigation. Freshly sulfided catalyst showed a high degree of deoxygenation activity; products were predominantly composed of alkanes (C17 and C18). Experiments with a major phospholipid showed that activity for C17 was greatly reduced while activity to C18 was not altered significantly in the studied conditions. Characterization of the spent catalyst revealed the formation of aluminum phosphate (AlPO4), which affects the active phase dispersion, blocks the active sites, and causes pore blockage. In addition, choline, formed from the decomposition of phospholipid, partially contributes to the observed deactivation. Furthermore, a direct correlation was observed in the accumulation of coke on the catalyst and the amount of phospholipid introduced in the feed. We therefore propose that the reason for the increased deactivation is due to the dual effects of an irreversible change in phase to aluminum phosphate and the formation of choline.