Nanometre-sized droplets from a gas dynamic virtual nozzle
Artikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift, 2019

This paper reports on improved techniques to create and characterize nanometre-sized droplets from dilute aqueous solutions by using a gas dynamic virtual nozzle (GDVN). It describes a method to measure the size distribution of uncharged droplets, using an environmental scanning electron microscope, and provides theoretical models for the droplet sizes created. The results show that droplet sizes can be tuned by adjusting the gas and liquid flow rates in the GDVN, and at the lowest liquid flow rates, the size of the water droplets peaks at about 120 nm. This droplet size is similar to droplet sizes produced by electrospray ionization but requires neither electrolytes nor charging of the solution. The results presented here identify a new operational regime for GDVNs and show that predictable droplet sizes, comparable to those obtained by electrospray ionization, can be produced by purely mechanical means in GDVNs.

coherent X-ray diffractive imaging (CXDI)

structural biology

droplet size

gas dynamic virtual nozzles (GDVNs)

environmental scanning electron microscopy


single particles

sample delivery



Kerstin Mühlig

Uppsala universitet

Alfonso M. Gañán-Calvo

Universidad de Sevilla

Jakob Andreasson

Uppsala universitet

Chalmers, Fysik, Materialfysik

Czech Academy of Sciences

Daniel S.D. Larsson

Uppsala universitet

Janos Hajdu

Czech Academy of Sciences

Uppsala universitet

Martin Svenda

Uppsala universitet

Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan (KTH)

Journal of Applied Crystallography

0021-8898 (ISSN) 1600-5767 (eISSN)

Vol. 52 800-808



Metallurgi och metalliska material

Strömningsmekanik och akustik



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