Application of passive sampling techniques for monitoring the aquatic environment
Kapitel i bok, 2009

A challenge for the environmental chemist is the development of reliable sampling and analytical procedures for the representative assessment of water quality.1-4 Currently, most water monitoring methods rely on the collection at defined periods of discrete spot, grab, or bottle samples followed by instrumental analysis in the laboratory. As many pollutants can be present in the water phase at very low concentrations, the collection of large volumes of water is often needed for analysis. In addition, the analysis of spot water samples provides only a snapshot of the levels of pollutants at the time of sampling. This may not give an accurate assessment of water quality in situations where pollutant concentrations fluctuate widely and where episodic pollution events occur. Data from round robin exercises of the analysis of pollutants found in spot water samples showed that there are often recurring problems of interlaboratory reproducibility especially when the pollutants are present in trace concentrations.5 Issues of poor reproducibility are often linked to the procedures used in collecting the water for analysis.


Graham Mills

University of Portsmouth

Richard Greenwood

University of Portsmouth

Ian J. Allan

Norsk institutt for vannforskning

Ewa Łopuchin

Politechnika Gdańska

J. Brümmer

University of Portsmouth

Jesper Knutsson

Chalmers, Bygg- och miljöteknik, Vatten Miljö Teknik

Branislav Vrana

Water Research Institute

Analytical Measurements in Aquatic Environments

9781420082692 (ISBN)



Oceanografi, hydrologi, vattenresurser




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