Role of protein-cellulose nanocrystal interactions in the stabilization of emulsion
Artikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift, 2019
Hypothesis: The interactions between two bio-based emulsifiers, namely cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) and the surface active sodium caseinate (CAS), can influence the formation and stability of oil-in-water emulsion (O/W).
Experiments: After studying the interactions between CNC and CAS, in bulk, and at air-water and liquid-liquid interfaces, emulsions have been prepared through different routes of addition, at pH 7 and 3, at which CNC and CAS had repulsive and attractive interactions, respectively. The routes of addition were (1) CAS and CNC simultaneously, (2) CAS first followed by CNC in a subsequent emulsification step and (3) CNC first, followed by CAS. The emulsions were characterized by laser diffraction and optical microscopy.
Findings: At pH 7, in the case of repulsive interactions, the surface activity of CAS was balanced by the irreversible adsorption of CNC, irrespectively of the route of emulsification. At pH 3, in the case of attractive interactions, using route (1), the aggregates CAS-CNC provided better emulsification than CNC and CAS alone. For emulsions prepared by route (2) and (3), gelling was observed which could be controlled through the order of addition. Emulsions prepared at pH 7 then adjusted to pH 3 exhibited an increase in viscosity, while the droplet size was not affected.