Recent Advances in Chemical Functionalization of 2D Black Phosphorous Nanosheets
Owing to their tunable direct bandgap, high charge carrier mobility, and unique in-plane anisotropic structure, black phosphorus nanosheets (BPNSs) have emerged as one of the most important candidates among the 2D materials beyond graphene. However, the poor ambient stability of black phosphorus limits its practical application, due to the chemical degradation of phosphorus atoms to phosphorus oxides in the presence of oxygen and/or water. Chemical functionalization is demonstrated as an efficient approach to enhance the ambient stability of BPNSs. Herein, various covalent strategies including radical addition, nitrene addition, nucleophilic substitution, and metal coordination are summarized. In addition, efficient noncovalent functionalization methods such as van der Waals interactions, electrostatic interactions, and cation–π interactions are described in detail. Furthermore, the preparations, characterization, and diverse applications of functionalized BPNSs in various fields are recapped. The challenges faced and future directions for the chemical functionalization of BPNSs are also highlighted.