Training Command and Control in Search & Rescue-Adaptive Behaviors in Uncertain Conditions
Konferensbidrag (offentliggjort, men ej förlagsutgivet), 2018
In any situation where there are shifting goals, there is a need for real-time adaptation. In critical situation in military or emergency operations time is of essence. It is crucial for success to get on top of the problem as quick as possible and start acting faster than the situation develops, to seize and keep the initiative. By reaching such a state proactive, rather than reactive, measures must be taken. Shifting goals require a radically different approach than stable goals when it comes to the rationale for action. There is a known gap between work as done and work as imagined. Managers often have a too simplified model of how work is performed and thus many simulator training programs are not living up to their potential. In this theoretical paper, the Cynefin Framework is being used to argue for different approaches to simulation design depending on the character of the situation depicted. Four situations are considered: simple, complicated, complex and chaotic. Simulation is a powerful training tool if used with thought. A thorough understanding of the area and system character of application is of crucial essence to be able to successfully develop simulator training. Complex system implies the need for adaption. Linear systems imply rule-based operations. If the solutions fit for linear systems are imposed on complex systems the ability to adapt is lost and in some cases to great risk to the operators on the field. To be able to tailor training to the task and to use simulation close to its full potential, it is of essence to understand the character of the real-life situation the simulation is aimed to prepare the trainee for. Complex (uncertain) situations require adaptation which simulation can afford but too often is lost and forgotten in bureaucratic fulfilment of training curriculums.