Co-combustion of municipal sludge with wood/coal in CFB--enrichment of phosphourous and cadmium in ashes
Paper i proceeding, 2003

Municipal sludge, originating from two wastewater treatment plants in Sweden, has been burned together with wood pellets or bituminous coal in a circulating fluidised bed (CFB) boiler equipped with a secondary cyclone and bag filter for fly ash removal. Such co-combustion is an alternative to mono-combustion of sludge. The sludge is burned in either mechanically dewatered or pre-dried form. The mechanically dewatered sludge was fed with a pump, but pre-dried sludge could be fed by the fuel feed system normally used for coal. Both types of sludge were burned with either wood-pellets or coal as main fuel under identical operating conditions, typical for a CFB boiler. The focus was on ash balances and on analysis of fuels and ashes to obtain concentrations of relevant species. The presence of phosphorous (P) is of special interest in relation to trace elements, such as mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni) and zinc (Zn). For this reason a comparison has been made between these trace elements and phosphorous in the various ashes and the original sludge as well as other sources of phosphorous that could be used for agricultural purposes. The results show that sewage sludge and fly ash, after combustion of sludge, contain similar amounts of phosphorous as other phosphorous sources for agricultural use, but the levels of trace elements in relation to phosphorous (Hg, Cd, Pb, Cr, Cu) are higher than in animal manure and artificial fertilizer and higher than the present limits in Sweden.

pulp- and papersludge


fluidized bed combustion






Lars-Erik Åmand

Institutionen för energiomvandling

Bo G Leckner

Institutionen för energiomvandling

L. Hansson

O. Norrlöw

In Proceedings of the 17th International Fluidized Bed Combustion Conference--FBC2003 held in Jacksonville, Florida, USA May 18-21, 2003


Hållbar utveckling



Annan naturresursteknik




Chalmers kraftcentral