Nanocellulose-Based Membranes for Water Purification
Kapitel i bok, 2019
Scarcity and contamination of worldwide drinking water demand advanced, effective water purification methodologies. Eliminating numerous contaminants, such as heavy metals, toxic textile dyes, pesticides, oil, and other industrial, as well as agricultural, wastes, from water has become a serious concern because of their adverse effects on human health and the ecosystem. Recently, developments in nanoscience and nanotechnology propose that several of the present problems relating to water quality could be greatly reduced by using nanomaterials because of their good adsorption efficiency, higher surface area, and greater active sites for interaction with contaminants in water. In this context, nanocellulose is the most abundant and renewable polymer available globally and consists of repeating β-d-glucopyranose units covalently linked through acetal functions between the hydroxyl groups of C4 and C1 carbon atoms that provide it chirality and reactivity properties. Nanocellulose is a fascinating material for practical applications because it is cost-effective, is renewable, and can be handled at huge scale using conventional wood industry techniques. Nanocellulose is a valuable filtration material because it is affordable, sustainable, inert, and stable at a broad range of pH/ionic strength. Moreover, the abundant availability of the surface hydroxyl groups on the nanocellulose facilitates various surface chemistries that can be explored for targeting various contaminants in water. This chapter covers the recent developments and literature of nanocellulose in the field of water purification.