SYMBA: An end-to-end VLBI synthetic data generation pipeline: Simulating Event Horizon Telescope observations of M 87
Artikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift, 2020

© 2020 ESO. Context. Realistic synthetic observations of theoretical source models are essential for our understanding of real observational data. In using synthetic data, one can verify the extent to which source parameters can be recovered and evaluate how various data corruption effects can be calibrated. These studies are the most important when proposing observations of new sources, in the characterization of the capabilities of new or upgraded instruments, and when verifying model-based theoretical predictions in a direct comparison with observational data. Aims. We present the SYnthetic Measurement creator for long Baseline Arrays (SYMBA), a novel synthetic data generation pipeline for Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) observations. SYMBA takes into account several realistic atmospheric, instrumental, and calibration effects. Methods. We used SYMBA to create synthetic observations for the Event Horizon Telescope (EHT), a millimetre VLBI array, which has recently captured the first image of a black hole shadow. After testing SYMBA with simple source and corruption models, we study the importance of including all corruption and calibration effects, compared to the addition of thermal noise only. Using synthetic data based on two example general relativistic magnetohydrodynamics (GRMHD) model images of M 87, we performed case studies to assess the image quality that can be obtained with the current and future EHT array for different weather conditions. Results. Our synthetic observations show that the effects of atmospheric and instrumental corruptions on the measured visibilities are significant. Despite these effects, we demonstrate how the overall structure of our GRMHD source models can be recovered robustly with the EHT2017 array after performing calibration steps, which include fringe fitting, a priori amplitude and network calibration, and self-calibration. With the planned addition of new stations to the EHT array in the coming years, images could be reconstructed with higher angular resolution and dynamic range. In our case study, these improvements allowed for a distinction between a thermal and a non-thermal GRMHD model based on salient features in reconstructed images.

Galaxies: nuclei

Atmospheric effects

Techniques: high angular resolution

Telescopes

Black hole physics

Techniques: interferometric

Författare

F. Roelofs

Radboud Universiteit

Michael Janssen

Radboud Universiteit

Iniyan Natarajan

Rhodes University

R. P. Deane

Rhodes University

Jordy Davelaar

Radboud Universiteit

Héctor Olivares

Radboud Universiteit

Oliver Porth

Johann Wolfgang Goethe Universität Frankfurt am Main

S.N. Paine

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

K. L. Bouman

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

R. P. J. Tilanus

Radboud Universiteit

I. van Bemmel

Joint Institute for VLBI in Europe (JIVE)

H.D. Falcke

Radboud Universiteit

Kazunori Akiyama

Harvard University

Antxon Alberdi

CSIC - Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (IAA)

Walter Alef

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

K. Asada

Academia Sinica

R. Azulay

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

A. K. Baczko

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

David Ball

University of Arizona

Mislav Baloković

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

John Barrett

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

Dan Bintley

East Asian Observatory

Lindy Blackburn

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

W. Boland

Nederlandse Onderzoekschool voor Astronomie (NOVA)

G. C. Bower

Academia Sinica

M. Bremer

Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique (IRAM)

C. D. Brinkerink

Radboud Universiteit

Roger Brissenden

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Silke Britzen

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Avery E. Broderick

Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics

D. Broguière

Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique (IRAM)

Thomas Bronzwaer

Radboud Universiteit

Do Young Byun

Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute

J. E. Carlstrom

University of Chicago

A. Chael

Princeton University

Chi Kwan Chan

University of Arizona

S. Chatterjee

Cornell University

Koushik Chatterjee

Universiteit Van Amsterdam

Ming Tang Chen

Academia Sinica

Yongjun Chen

Shanghai Astronomical Observatory

I. Cho

Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute

Pierre Christian

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

John Conway

Chalmers, Rymd-, geo- och miljövetenskap, Onsala rymdobservatorium

James M. Cordes

Cornell University

G. Crew

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

Yuzhu Cui

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

Mariafelicia De Laurentis

Johann Wolfgang Goethe Universität Frankfurt am Main

Jessica Dempsey

East Asian Observatory

Gregory Desvignes

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Jason Dexter

Harvard University

S. Doeleman

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Ralph P. Eatough

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

V. Fish

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

E. Fomalont

National Radio Astronomy Observatory

R. Fraga-Encinas

Radboud Universiteit

P. Friberg

East Asian Observatory

Christian M. Fromm

Johann Wolfgang Goethe Universität Frankfurt am Main

J. L. Gomez

CSIC - Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (IAA)

Peter Galison

Harvard University

Charles F. Gammie

University of Illinois

Roberto Garcia

Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique (IRAM)

Olivier Gentaz

Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique (IRAM)

Boris Georgiev

University of Waterloo

C. Goddi

Radboud Universiteit

R. Gold

Johann Wolfgang Goethe Universität Frankfurt am Main

Minfeng Gu

Shanghai Astronomical Observatory

M. Gurwell

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

K. Hada

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

Michael H. Hecht

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

R. Hesper

Rijksuniversiteit Groningen

Luis C. Ho

Beijing University of Technology

P. Ho

Academia Sinica

M. Honma

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

C.L. Huang

Academia Sinica

Lei Huang

Shanghai Astronomical Observatory

D. Hughes

Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Óptica y Electrońica

S. Ikeda

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

Makoto Inoue

Academia Sinica

S. Issaoun

Radboud Universiteit

David J. James

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Buell T. Jannuzi

University of Arizona

Britton Jeter

University of Waterloo

Wu Jiang

Shanghai Astronomical Observatory

Michael D. Johnson

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

S.G. Jorstad

Boston University

Taehyun Jung

Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute

Mansour Karami

Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics

R. Karuppusamy

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Tomohisa Kawashima

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

G. Keating

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

M. M. Kettenis

Joint Institute for VLBI in Europe (JIVE)

Junhan Kim

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Jongsoo Kim

California Institute of Technology (Caltech)

Jae-Young Kim

Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute

M. Kino

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

Jun Yi Koay

Academia Sinica

Patrick M. Koch

Academia Sinica

Shoko Koyama

Academia Sinica

M. Kramer

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

C. Kramer

Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique (IRAM)

T.P. Krichbaum

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Cheng Yu Kuo

National Sun Yat-Sen University Taiwan

Tod R. Lauer

National Optical Astronomy Observatory

Sang Sung Lee

Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute

Yan Rong Li

Institute of High Energy Physics Chinese Academy of Science

Zhiyuan Li

Nanjing University

Michael Lindqvist

Chalmers, Rymd-, geo- och miljövetenskap, Onsala rymdobservatorium, Onsala rymdobservatorium, Observationssupport

R. Lico

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Kuo Liu

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Elisabetta Liuzzo

Istituto di Radioastronomia

Wen-Ping Lo

Academia Sinica

A. P. Lobanov

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

L. Loinard

Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico

Colin Lonsdale

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

R.S. Lu

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

N. R. Macdonald

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Jirong Mao

Chinese Academy of Sciences

S. Markoff

Universiteit Van Amsterdam

D. P. Marrone

University of Arizona

A. Marscher

Boston University

Ivan Marti-Vidal

Universitat de Valencia

S. Matsushita

Academia Sinica

L.D. Matthews

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

Lia Medeiros

University of Arizona

K. Menten

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Yosuke Mizuno

Johann Wolfgang Goethe Universität Frankfurt am Main

Izumi Mizuno

East Asian Observatory

James M. Moran

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Kotaro Moriyama

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

M. Mościbrodzka

Radboud Universiteit

C. Müller

Radboud Universiteit

H. Nagai

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

N. M. Nagar

Universidad de Concepción

Masanori Nakamura

Academia Sinica

Ramesh Narayan

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Gopal Narayanan

University of Massachusetts

R. Neri

Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique (IRAM)

Chunchong Ni

University of Waterloo

A. Noutsos

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Hiroki Okino

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

G.N. Ortiz-León

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Tomoaki Oyama

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

Feryal Özel

University of Arizona

Daniel C.M. Palumbo

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

N. Patel

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

U. L. Pen

Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics

Dominic W. Pesce

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Vincent Piétu

Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique (IRAM)

Richard L. Plambeck

University of California

Aleksandar PopStefanija

University of Massachusetts

Ben Prather

University of Illinois

Jorge A. Preciado-López

Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics

D. Psaltis

University of Arizona

Hung-Yi Pu

Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics

Venkatessh Ramakrishnan

Universidad de Concepción

R. Rao

Academia Sinica

M.G. Rawlings

East Asian Observatory

Alexander W. Raymond

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Luciano Rezzolla

Johann Wolfgang Goethe Universität Frankfurt am Main

Bart Ripperda

Princeton University

A. Rogers

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

Eduardo Ros

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Mel Rose

University of Arizona

Arash Roshanineshat

University of Arizona

H. Rottmann

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

A. Roy

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

C. Ruszczyk

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

Benjamin R. Ryan

Los Alamos National Laboratory

Kazi L.J. Rygl

Istituto di Radioastronomia

S. Sanchez

Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique (IRAM)

David Sánchez-Arguelles

The Institute of Statistical Mathematics

Mahito Sasada

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

T. Savolainen

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

F. P. Schloerb

University of Massachusetts

K. Schuster

Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique (IRAM)

Lijing Shao

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Zhi Qiang Shen

Shanghai Astronomical Observatory

Des Small

Joint Institute for VLBI in Europe (JIVE)

B. Won Sohn

Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute

J. SooHoo

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

Fumie Tazaki

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

Paul Tiede

University of Waterloo

M. Titus

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

Kenji Toma

Tohoku University

Pablo Torne

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

E. Traianou

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Tyler Trent

University of Arizona

S. Trippe

Seoul National University

Shuichiro Tsuda

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

H. J. van Langevelde

Joint Institute for VLBI in Europe (JIVE)

Daniel R. van Rossum

Radboud Universiteit

Jan Wagner

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

John Wardle

Brandeis University

J. Weintroub

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Norbert Wex

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Robert Wharton

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

M. Wielgus

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

George N. Wong

University of Illinois

Qingwen Wu

Huazhong University of Science and Technology

André Young

Radboud Universiteit

K. Young

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Ziri Younsi

Johann Wolfgang Goethe Universität Frankfurt am Main

Feng Yuan

Shanghai Astronomical Observatory

Ye-Fei Yuan

University of Science and Technology of China

A.J. Zensus

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

G. Y. Zhao

Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute

Shan-Shan Zhao

Radboud Universiteit

Ziyan Zhu

Harvard University

Astronomy and Astrophysics

0004-6361 (ISSN) 1432-0746 (eISSN)

Vol. 636 A5

Ämneskategorier

Astronomi, astrofysik och kosmologi

Geofysik

Datorseende och robotik (autonoma system)

DOI

10.1051/0004-6361/201936622

Mer information

Senast uppdaterat

2020-07-09