The Random Line-of-Sight Over-the-Air Measurement System
As our society becomes increasingly connected, a growing number of devices rely on wireless connectivity. The type, use and form factor of these devices range from wearables to entire vehicles. Additionally, the fifth generation of wireless communication (5G) introduces new communication bands, also at higher frequencies. At these millimeter-wave frequencies, large portions of bandwidth are available which are needed in order to increase the data rates.
In this scenario, testing and verifying the wireless communication performance has an increasingly important role. In modern devices, testing needs to be performed over-the-air (OTA), as direct conducted measurements to the antenna ports become unfeasible. Moreover, there is still ongoing research to understand how testing should be performed for devices with large form-factors, such as vehicles, as well as for higher frequencies. The proposed methods are mainly based on techniques for mobile phone testing at the current communication bands, i.e., sub-6 GHz. However, scaling and adapting these methods to work for future needs presents challenges.
A possible solution to meet the future testing requirements is offered by the following hypothesis: "If a wireless device is tested with good performance in both pure-LOS and RIMP environments, it will also perform well in real-life environments and situations, in a statistical sense". The rich isotropic multipath (RIMP) and the random line-of-sight (random-LOS) are therefore identified as the two representative edge environments for testing. This thesis focuses on the random-LOS environment, and its practical realization to test the wireless performance of different devices.
The thesis is divided into three main parts. The first part describes the practical realization of random-LOS OTA measurement setups. Three different setups are presented, a virtual planar array and two reflector antennas. One reflector system is aimed at vehicular testing for frequencies below 6 GHz, while the other targets smaller devices at 28 GHz.
The second part of the thesis focuses on numerical and experimental verification of the random-LOS measurement setups. In the verification, numerical simulations and measurements of the test zone variations are compared for the proposed OTA measurement systems.
The third and last part focuses on how passive and active measurements can be performed using a random-LOS measurement setup. The measurements demonstrate the application of the designed OTA measurement systems for passive antenna measurements, as well as active 2x2 multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) measurements on a complete vehicle.
rich isotropic multipath