Comparative Greenhouse Gas Footprinting of Online versus Traditional Shopping for Fast-Moving Consumer Goods: A Stochastic Approach
Artikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift, 2020

Variability in consumer practices and choices is typically not addressed in comparisons of environmental impacts of traditional shopping and e-commerce. Here, we developed a stochastic model to quantify the variability in the greenhouse gas (GHG) footprints of product distribution and purchase of fast-moving consumer goods (FMCGs) via three prevalent retail channels in the United Kingdom (U.K.). We found that shopping via bricks and clicks (click and fulfillment via physical store delivery) most likely decreases the GHG footprints when substituting traditional shopping, while FMCGs purchased through pure players with parcel delivery often have higher GHG footprints compared to those purchased via traditional retail. The number of items purchased and the last-mile travel distance are the dominant contributors to the variability in the GHG footprints of all three retail channels. We further showed that substituting delivery vans with electric cargo bikes can lead to a GHG emission reduction of 26% via parcel delivery. Finally, we showed the differences in the "last mile" GHG footprint of traditional shopping in the U.K. compared to three other countries (China, Netherlands, and the United States), which are primarily caused by the different shares of modes of transport ( walking and by car, bus, and bike).

IMPACT

DELIVERY

LAST-MILE

E-COMMERCE

EMISSIONS

VEHICLE

URBAN AREAS

BIKES

Författare

Sadegh Shahmohammadi

Radboud Universiteit

Nederlandse Organisatie voor toegepast-natuurwetenschappelijk onderzoek (TNO)

Zoran J. N. Steinmann

Radboud Universiteit

Wageningen University and Research

Lau Tambjerg

Unilever Safety & Environm Assurance Ctr

Patricia van Loon

Chalmers, Teknikens ekonomi och organisation, Supply and Operations Management

J. M. Henry King

Unilever Safety & Environm Assurance Ctr

Mark A. J. Huijbregts

Radboud Universiteit

Environmental Science & Technology

0013-936X (ISSN) 1520-5851 (eISSN)

Vol. 54 6 3499-3509

Ämneskategorier

Transportteknik och logistik

Miljöledning

Miljövetenskap

DOI

10.1021/acs.est.9b06252

PubMed

32100529

Mer information

Senast uppdaterat

2020-06-24