Radio observatories and instrumentation used in space weather science and operations
Artikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift, 2020

The low frequency array (LOFAR) is a phased array interferometer currently consisting of 13 international stations across Europe and 38 stations surrounding a central hub in the Netherlands. The instrument operates in the frequency range of similar to 10-240 MHz and is used for a variety of astrophysical science cases. While it is not heliophysics or space weather dedicated, a new project entitled "LOFAR for Space Weather" (LOFAR4SW) aims at designing a system upgrade to allow the entire array to observe the Sun, heliosphere, Earth's ionosphere, and Jupiter throughout its observing window. This will allow the instrument to operate as a space weather observing platform, facilitating both space weather science and operations. Part of this design study aims to survey the existing space weather infrastructure operating at radio frequencies and show how LOFAR4SW can advance the current state-of-the-art in this field. In this paper, we survey radio instrumentation and facilities that currently operate in space weather science and/or operations, including instruments involved in solar, heliospheric, and ionospheric studies. We furthermore include an overview of the major space weather service providers in operation today and the current state-of-the-art in the radio data they use and provide routinely. The aim is to compare LOFAR4SW to the existing radio research infrastructure in space weather and show how it may advance both space weather science and operations in the radio domain in the near future.


Space weather


Eoin P. Carley

Trinity College Dublin

Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies

Carla Baldovin

Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy (ASTRON)

Pieter Benthem

Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy (ASTRON)

Mario M. Bisi


Richard A. Fallows

Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy (ASTRON)

Peter T. Gallagher

Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies

Trinity College Dublin

Michael Olberg

Chalmers, Rymd-, geo- och miljövetenskap, Onsala rymdobservatorium

Hanna Rothkaehl

Polish Academy of Sciences

Rene Vermeulen

Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy (ASTRON)

Nicole Vilmer

Universite d'Orleans

Université Paris Descartes

David Barnes


Journal of Space Weather and Space Climate

2115-7251 (eISSN)

Vol. 10 Topical Issue - Scientific Advances from the European Commission H2020 projects on Space Weather 7

LOFAR för rymdväder

Europeiska kommissionen (EU) (EC/H2020/777442), 2017-12-01 -- 2021-05-31.


Rymd- och flygteknik

Astronomi, astrofysik och kosmologi




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