Acid precipitation of kraft lignin from aqueous solutions: the influence of anionic specificity and concentration level of the salt
Artikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift, 2019
In this study, the formation of particles and evolution of the particle size distribution in the micron range were monitored in situ during acid precipitation of kraft lignin. The objective of this work was to study the influence of anionic specificity and the ion concentration level. The concentrations of ions in the solution were altered both in terms of the concentration of Na+ and the type of anion in the salt added (SO42- and Cl-). The results indicate that a salting-out phenomenon occurred as NaCl was added (Na+ >= 2 mol kg(-1) water) to the kraft lignin solution at high pH, but not when Na2SO4 was added. However, the onset pH of the formation of particles (>= 1 mu m), triggered by acidification, showed to be virtually non-specific to the anion but strongly dependent on the Na+ concentration. As the pH decreased further to below the onset pH of the formation of particles >= 1 mu m, the chord length distributions (particle-size related) indicated that most of the volume of the precipitated kraft lignin (and thus possibly also the mass) may be found among the micron-sized particles, despite the fact that a relatively large number of submicron particles may also be present. The volumebased distributions tended to be wide at relatively low pH and high Na' concentrations (e.g. pH 9.4 and 2.0 mol kg(-1) water).
kraft lignin precipitation
particle size distribution