Public-Private-People Partnerships (4P) for Improving the Response to COVID-19 in Iran
Artikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift, 2021

Public-Private-People Partnership is a significant element in disaster response. COVID-19 as a pandemic has been the worst disaster in the last decades in Iran in terms of exposure and magnitude. In order to respond effectively, the Iranian government needs an extra capacity which may be provided by the private sector and people. This study aims to collect evidences of Public-Private-People partnerships pertaining to COVID-19 response in Iran from February to April 2020. Partnership case studies are classified into three categories as follows: 1) Public-private partnerships; 2) public-people partnerships; and 3) private-people partnerships. It was found that the Iranian government has removed or diminished some of the barriers to cooperation. There was also more cooperation between the people, the private sector, and the public sector than during normal times (vs disasters). People participated in the response procedure through some associations or groups, such as religious and ethnic communities, as well as through non-governmental organizations. It is showed that 4P is vital in disasters response and in particular to epidemics. The government can be more active in partnerships with private sector, and people in emergencies such as COVID-19 Pandemic. Enhancing social capital, institutionalization, and developing required infrastructures by the government will improve public-private partnerships.


Public-Private-People Partnerships (4P)




Hamed Seddighi

University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences

Sadegh Seddighi

Chalmers, Rymd-, geo- och miljövetenskap, Energiteknik

Ibrahim Salmani

Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences

Mehrab Sharifi Sedeh

Tehran University of Medical Sciences

Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness

1935-7893 (ISSN) 1938-744X (eISSN)

Vol. 15 1 e44-e49


Sociologi (exklusive socialt arbete, socialpsykologi och socialantropologi)


Studier av offentlig förvaltning





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